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      Redescription of Heligmosomoides neopolygyrus, Asakawa and Ohbayashi, 1986 (Nematoda: Heligmosomidae) from a Chinese Rodent, Apodemus peninsulae (Rodentia: Muridae); with comments on Heligmosomoides polygyrus polygyrus (Dujardin, 1845) and related species in China and Japan Translated title: Redescription d’ Heligmosomoides neopolygyrus, Asakawa et Ohbayashi, 1986 (Nematoda : Heligmosomidae) chez un rongeur de Chine, Apodemus peninsulae (Rodentia : Muridae) ; et commentaires sur Heligmosomoides polygyrus polygyrus (Dujardin, 1845) et les espèces signalées en Chine et au Japon

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          Heligmosomoides neopolygyrus, Asakawa and Ohbayashi, 1986 (Nematoda, Heligmosomoidea) is redescribed from Apodemus peninsulae from Rangtang, Sichuan, China. A morphological review of the Heligmosomoides spp. belonging to the “ polygyrus line” proposed by Asakawa (1988) is made using new characters. This enabled us to distinguish two subspecies in Mus musculus ( Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri from Japan and H. p. polygyrus from China) and two valid species in Apodemus spp. ( H. neopolygyrus from Japan [in A. peninsulae] and from China [in A. agrarius] and H. asakawae from China [in A. uralensis]). Three parasite species of A. agrarius and A. peninsulae, previously identified by Asakawa et al. (1993) as H. neopolygyrus, are considered to be Heligmosomoides incertae sedis. This is the first report of H. neopolygyrus in A. peninsulae from China.

          Translated abstract

          Heligmosomoides neopolygyrus, Asakawa et Ohbayashi, 1986 (Nematoda : Heligmosomoidea) parasite d’ Apodemus agrarius au Japon est redécrit chez un A. peninsulae originaire de Chine. Une revue des espèces du genre Heligmosomoides spp. appartenant à la lignée “ polygyrus” caractérisée par Asakawa (1988) est faite en utilisant de nouveaux caractères. Ceci nous a permis de confirmer la distinction de deux sous-espèces chez Mus musculus ( Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri au Japon et H. p. polygyrus en Chine) et de deux espèces valides chez Apodemus spp. [ H. neopolygyrus au Japon (chez A. peninsulae) et en Chine (chez A. agrarius) et H. asakawae en Chine (chez A. uralensis)]. Trois espèces parasites d’ A. agrarius et d’ A. peninsulae qui ont été identifiées par Asakawa et al. (1993) comme H. neopolygyrus sont considérées comme des Heligmosomoides incertae sedis. C’est la première fois qu’ H. neopolygyrus est signalé chez un A. peninsulae en Chine.

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          Most cited references 8

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          Trichostrongyloid nematodes and their vertebrate hosts: reconstruction of the phylogeny of a parasitic group.

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            Molecular evidence that Heligmosomoides polygyrus from laboratory mice and wood mice are separate species.

            The gastro-intestinal (GI) nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus is an important experimental model in laboratory mice and a well-studied parasite of wood mice in the field. Despite an extensive literature, the taxonomy of this parasite in different hosts is confused, and it is unclear whether laboratory and field systems represent the same or different Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs). Molecular analyses reveal high sequence divergence between H. p. bakeri (laboratory) and H. p. polygyrus (field); 3% difference in the ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS) and 8.6% variation in the more rapidly evolving mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene. The COI sequence of U.K. H. p. polygyrus is more similar to H. glareoli from voles than to H. p. bakeri, while a single isolate of H. p. polygyrus from Guernsey confirms the extent of genetic variation between H. p. polygyrus populations. Analysis of molecular variance demonstrated that mtCOI sequence variation is associated primarily with groups with distinct ITS2 sequences, and with host identity, but is not partitioned significantly with a single combined taxon H. polygyrus incorporating European and North American isolates. We conclude therefore that the laboratory OTU should be raised to the level of a distinct species, as H. bakeri from the laboratory mouse Mus musculus, and we reject the hypothesis that H. bakeri has diverged from H. polygyrus in the recent past following introduction into America. However, we are unable to reject the hypothesis that H. polygyrus and H. bakeri are sister taxa, and it may be that H. polygyrus is polyphyletic or paraphyletic.
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              The caudal bursa in the Heligmonellidae (Nematoda: Trichostrongylina). Characterization and hypothesis on its evolution

              The different patterns of the caudal bursa of the Heligmonellidae (Nematoda) are redefined, taking into account the grouping of rays 2-6 and the sequence of origin of these rays from their common trunk. The type of symmetry of the caudal bursa is also redefined. The following patterns were observed and characterized: the basic patterns: types 2-3, 2-2-1, 1-3-1 and 1-4 and the intermediary patterns: type 2-3 tending to type 2-2-1, type 2-2-1 tending to type 1-3-1, type 1-3-1 tending to type 1-4 and type 2-2-1 tending to type 1-4. An evolutionary interpretation of the patterns is attempted and seems to follow the direction: 2-3 to 2-2-1 to 1-3-1 to 1-4. Seven atypical patterns are described. The caudal bursae were classified based on their symmetry: subsymmetrical, dissymmetrical and asymmetrical. Independently of the type of symmetry, the two latero-ventral lobes may have the same or different patterns. The type of symmetry, the ratio between the two latero-ventral lobes and a characteristic pattern were utilized to characterize the caudal bursae at the level of the genus and the subfamily. The combination of the right/left ratio and the type of symmetry gives heterogeneous results, with no real association between these characters. The most conspicuous asymmetries and dissymmetries were found among the Nippostrongylinae. The most frequent pattern in the Heligmonellidae is the basic type 2-2-1; types 1-3-1 and 1-4 are less frequent but are characteristic of several genera; type 1-4 is absent from the Heligmonellinae. Whatever the pattern, in the Heligmonellidae rays 4 and 5 are the last to diverge from the common trunk of rays 2-6.

                Author and article information

                EDP Sciences
                November 2012
                15 November 2012
                : 19
                : 4 ( publisher-idID: parasite/2012/04 )
                : 367-374
                [1 ] Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, UMR 7207 CNRS-MNHNUPMC “Centre de recherche sur la Paléobiodiversité et les Paléoenvironnements – CR2P”. MNHN 57, rue Cuvier CC 48 75231 Paris Cedex 05 France
                [2 ] Université Paris-Sud, UMR 8079 CNRS-UPSUD Écologie Systématique et Évolution, Équipe Biodiversité, Systématique et Évolution Bâtiment 360 91405 Orsay Cedex France
                [3 ] Département de Systématique et Évolution, Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, UMR 7138 CNRS-MNHN-UPMC 57, rue Cuvier CC 52 75231 Paris Cedex 05 France
                [4 ] INRA, UMR 1062 CBGP, Campus international de Baillarguet, CS 30016 34988 Montferrier-sur-Lez Cedex France
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: Fabienne Audebert. Tel.: 33 (0)1 40 79 80 58. E-mail: fabienne.audebert@ 123456upmc.fr
                parasite2012194p367 10.1051/parasite/2012194367
                © PRINCEPS Editions, Paris, 2012

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 23, Pages: 8
                Original Contribution


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