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      Examining diabetic heel ulcers through an ecological lens: microbial community dynamics associated with healing and infection

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          Most cited references 23

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          Metabolic dependencies drive species co-occurrence in diverse microbial communities.

          Microbial communities populate most environments on earth and play a critical role in ecology and human health. Their composition is thought to be largely shaped by interspecies competition for the available resources, but cooperative interactions, such as metabolite exchanges, have also been implicated in community assembly. The prevalence of metabolic interactions in microbial communities, however, has remained largely unknown. Here, we systematically survey, by using a genome-scale metabolic modeling approach, the extent of resource competition and metabolic exchanges in over 800 communities. We find that, despite marked resource competition at the level of whole assemblies, microbial communities harbor metabolically interdependent groups that recur across diverse habitats. By enumerating flux-balanced metabolic exchanges in these co-occurring subcommunities we also predict the likely exchanged metabolites, such as amino acids and sugars, that can promote group survival under nutritionally challenging conditions. Our results highlight metabolic dependencies as a major driver of species co-occurrence and hint at cooperative groups as recurring modules of microbial community architecture.
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            Metabolic modeling of species interaction in the human microbiome elucidates community-level assembly rules.

             R. Levy,  E Borenstein (2013)
            The human microbiome plays a key role in human health and is associated with numerous diseases. Metagenomic-based studies are now generating valuable information about the composition of the microbiome in health and in disease, demonstrating nonneutral assembly processes and complex co-occurrence patterns. However, the underlying ecological forces that structure the microbiome are still unclear. Specifically, compositional studies alone with no information about mechanisms of interaction, potential competition, or syntrophy, cannot clearly distinguish habitat-filtering and species assortment assembly processes. To address this challenge, we introduce a computational framework, integrating metagenomic-based compositional data with genome-scale metabolic modeling of species interaction. We use in silico metabolic network models to predict levels of competition and complementarity among 154 microbiome species and compare predicted interaction measures to species co-occurrence. Applying this approach to two large-scale datasets describing the composition of the gut microbiome, we find that species tend to co-occur across individuals more frequently with species with which they strongly compete, suggesting that microbiome assembly is dominated by habitat filtering. Moreover, species' partners and excluders exhibit distinct metabolic interaction levels. Importantly, we show that these trends cannot be explained by phylogeny alone and hold across multiple taxonomic levels. Interestingly, controlling for host health does not change the observed patterns, indicating that the axes along which species are filtered are not fully defined by macroecological host states. The approach presented here lays the foundation for a reverse-ecology framework for addressing key questions concerning the assembly of host-associated communities and for informing clinical efforts to manipulate the microbiome.
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              Prediction of outcome in individuals with diabetic foot ulcers: focus on the differences between individuals with and without peripheral arterial disease. The EURODIALE Study

              Aims/hypothesis Outcome data on individuals with diabetic foot ulcers are scarce, especially in those with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). We therefore examined the clinical characteristics that best predict poor outcome in a large population of diabetic foot ulcer patients and examined whether such predictors differ between patients with and without PAD. Methods Analyses were conducted within the EURODIALE Study, a prospective cohort study of 1,088 diabetic foot ulcer patients across 14 centres in Europe. Multiple logistic regression modelling was used to identify independent predictors of outcome (i.e. non-healing of the foot ulcer). Results After 1 year of follow-up, 23% of the patients had not healed. Independent baseline predictors of non-healing in the whole study population were older age, male sex, heart failure, the inability to stand or walk without help, end-stage renal disease, larger ulcer size, peripheral neuropathy and PAD. When analyses were performed according to PAD status, infection emerged as a specific predictor of non-healing in PAD patients only. Conclusions/interpretation Predictors of healing differ between patients with and without PAD, suggesting that diabetic foot ulcers with or without concomitant PAD should be defined as two separate disease states. The observed negative impact of infection on healing that was confined to patients with PAD needs further investigation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Medical Microbiology
                Microbiology Society
                0022-2615
                1473-5644
                February 01 2019
                February 01 2019
                : 68
                : 2
                : 230-240
                Affiliations
                [1 ] 2​Department of Clinical Microbiology, Queen’s Medical Centre, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottingham, UK
                [2 ] 1​School of Life Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
                [3 ] 3​Path Links Pathology, Northern Lincolnshire and Goole NHS Foundation Trust, Lincolnshire, UK
                [4 ] 4​Foot Ulcer Trials Unit, Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottingham, UK
                [5 ] 5​Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Derby Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Derby, UK
                Article
                10.1099/jmm.0.000907
                © 2019

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