Concerns have been raised in multiple scientific fields in recent years about the reproducibility of published results. Systematic efforts to examine this issue have been undertaken in biomedicine and psychology, but less is known about this important issue in the materials-oriented research that underpins much of modern chemical engineering. Here, we relate a dramatic historical episode from our own institution to illustrate the implications of performing reproducible research and describe two case studies based on literature analysis to provide concrete information on the reproducibility of modern materials-oriented research. The two case studies deal with the properties of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), a class of materials that have generated tens of thousands of papers. We do not claim that research on MOFs is less (or more) reproducible than other subfields; rather, we argue that the characteristics of this subfield are common to many areas of materials-oriented research. We conclude with specific recommendations for action by individual researchers, journal editors, publishers, and research communities.