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      Optimization of native biocontrol agents, with parasitoids of the invasive pest Drosophila suzukii as an example

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          Abstract

          The development of biological control methods for exotic invasive pest species has become more challenging during the last decade. Compared to indigenous natural enemies, species from the pest area of origin are often more efficient due to their long coevolutionary history with the pest. The import of these well‐adapted exotic species, however, has become restricted under the Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit Sharing, reducing the number of available biocontrol candidates. Finding new agents and ways to improve important traits for control agents (“biocontrol traits”) is therefore of crucial importance. Here, we demonstrate the potential of a surprisingly under‐rated method for improvement of biocontrol: the exploitation of intraspecific variation in biocontrol traits, for example, by selective breeding. We propose a four‐step approach to investigate the potential of this method: investigation of the amount of (a) inter‐ and (b) intraspecific variation for biocontrol traits, (c) determination of the environmental and genetic factors shaping this variation, and (d) exploitation of this variation in breeding programs. We illustrate this approach with a case study on parasitoids of Drosophila suzukii, a highly invasive pest species in Europe and North America. We review all known parasitoids of D. suzukii and find large variation among and within species in their ability to kill this fly. We then consider which genetic and environmental factors shape the interaction between D. suzukii and its parasitoids to explain this variation. Insight into the causes of variation informs us on how and to what extent candidate agents can be improved. Moreover, it aids in predicting the effectiveness of the agent upon release and provides insight into the selective forces that are limiting the adaptation of indigenous species to the new pest. We use this knowledge to give future research directions for the development of selective breeding methods for biocontrol agents.

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          Wolbachia: master manipulators of invertebrate biology.

          Wolbachia are common intracellular bacteria that are found in arthropods and nematodes. These alphaproteobacteria endosymbionts are transmitted vertically through host eggs and alter host biology in diverse ways, including the induction of reproductive manipulations, such as feminization, parthenogenesis, male killing and sperm-egg incompatibility. They can also move horizontally across species boundaries, resulting in a widespread and global distribution in diverse invertebrate hosts. Here, we review the basic biology of Wolbachia, with emphasis on recent advances in our understanding of these fascinating endosymbionts.
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            Phenotypic plasticity in the interactions and evolution of species.

            When individuals of two species interact, they can adjust their phenotypes in response to their respective partner, be they antagonists or mutualists. The reciprocal phenotypic change between individuals of interacting species can reflect an evolutionary response to spatial and temporal variation in species interactions and ecologically result in the structuring of food chains. The evolution of adaptive phenotypic plasticity has led to the success of organisms in novel habitats, and potentially contributes to genetic differentiation and speciation. Taken together, phenotypic responses in species interactions represent modifications that can lead to reciprocal change in ecological time, altered community patterns, and expanded evolutionary potential of species.
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              Experimental evolution.

              Experimental evolution is the study of evolutionary processes occurring in experimental populations in response to conditions imposed by the experimenter. This research approach is increasingly used to study adaptation, estimate evolutionary parameters, and test diverse evolutionary hypotheses. Long applied in vaccine development, experimental evolution also finds new applications in biotechnology. Recent technological developments provide a path towards detailed understanding of the genomic and molecular basis of experimental evolutionary change, while new findings raise new questions that can be addressed with this approach. However, experimental evolution has important limitations, and the interpretation of results is subject to caveats resulting from small population sizes, limited timescales, the simplified nature of laboratory environments, and, in some cases, the potential to misinterpret the selective forces and other processes at work. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                a.j.kruitwagen@rug.nl
                Journal
                Evol Appl
                Evol Appl
                10.1111/(ISSN)1752-4571
                EVA
                Evolutionary Applications
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                1752-4571
                14 June 2018
                October 2018
                : 11
                : 9 ( doiID: 10.1111/eva.2018.11.issue-9 )
                : 1473-1497
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] Groningen Institute for Evolutionary Life Sciences University of Groningen Groningen The Netherlands
                Author notes
                [*] [* ] Correspondence

                Astrid Kruitwagen, Groningen Institute for Evolutionary Life Sciences, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

                Email: a.j.kruitwagen@ 123456rug.nl

                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5952-1589
                Article
                EVA12648
                10.1111/eva.12648
                6183459
                30344621
                5a6f531f-148c-4f35-b628-005a4963d35f
                © 2018 The Authors. Evolutionary Applications published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd

                This is an open access article under the terms of the http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 30 October 2017
                : 03 May 2018
                : 08 May 2018
                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 3, Pages: 25, Words: 20340
                Funding
                Funded by: Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek
                Award ID: ALWGR.2015.6
                Categories
                Reviews and Syntheses
                Reviews and Syntheses
                Custom metadata
                2.0
                eva12648
                October 2018
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_NLMPMC version:version=5.5.0.1 mode:remove_FC converted:12.10.2018

                Evolutionary Biology
                artificial selection,biological control agent,coevolution,exotic species,host–parasite interactions,pest management,phenomics,spotted wing drosophila

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