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      The impact of pain on the quality of life of patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing hemodialysis: a multicenter cross-sectional study from Palestine

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          Chronic kidney disease is considered as a global health problem. Hemodialysis (HD), following renal transplantation, is the most common form of renal replacement therapy. However, HD may impact the quality of life (QOL). Pain is a frequent complaint among this population that also affects their QOL. The purposes of this study were to assess pain and QOL among end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on HD and to examine their association.


          This was a multicenter, cross-sectional study that occurred in Palestine between August and November 2018. Brief Pain Inventory and European Quality of Life scale 5 dimensions (EQ-5D) scale, including its European Quality of Life visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) component, were used to assess pain and QOL, respectively.


          A total of 300 participants were included in the final study. The average age of the subjects was 54 ± 16 years. Their median EQ-5D score was 0.68 [0.54–0.88], whereas their median EQ-VAS score was 60 [40–75]. A statistically significant association of pain severity score with EQ-5D score was found (r = − 0.783, p < 0.001). The association between pain interference score and EQ-5D score was also found to be statistically significant (r = − 0.868, p < 0.001). Similarly, pain severity score was significantly assocsiated with EQ-VAS score (r = − 0.590, p < 0.001), the same as was the pain interference score (r = − 0.647, p < 0.001). Moreover, age, gender, BMI, employment, educational level, income level, dialysis vintage, previous kidney transplantation, and chronic medication use were all significantly correlated with QOL. Regression analysis showed that patients aged < 60 years ( p < 0.001), those with lower pain severity scores ( p = 0.003), and those with lower pain interference scores ( p < 0.001) had significantly higher QOL scores.


          Pain has a significant negative impact on QOL in ESRD patients undergoing HD. The subgroups that were at higher risk included elderly patients, females, those with higher BMI, those without a formal education, those unemployed, those living with low monthly income, smokers, those who have multiple comorbidities, and patients with longer dialysis vintage. Our findings provide reliable data for educators and clinicians working with HD patients.

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          Most cited references 69

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          Development of the Wisconsin Brief Pain Questionnaire to assess pain in cancer and other diseases.

          This paper reports the development of a self-report instrument designed to assess pain in cancer and other diseases. It is argued that issues of reliability and validity should be considered for every pain questionnaire. Most research on measures of pain examine reliability to the relative neglect of validity concerns. The Wisconsin Brief Pain Questionnaire (BPQ) is evaluated with regard to both reliability and validity. Data from patients with cancer at 4 primary sites and from patients with rheumatoid arthritis suggest that the BPQ is sufficiently reliable and valid for research purposes. Additional methodological and theoretical issues related to validity are discussed, and the need for continuing evaluation of the BPQ and other measures of clinical pain is stressed.
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            A study of the quality of life and cost-utility of renal transplantation.

            The objective of this study was to assess the cost-utility of renal transplantation compared with dialysis. To accomplish this, a prospective cohort of pre-transplant patients were followed for up to two years after renal transplantation at three University-based Canadian hospitals. A total of 168 patients were followed for an average of 19.5 months after transplantation. Health-related quality of life was assessed using a hemodialysis questionnaire, a transplant questionnaire, the Sickness Impact Profile, and the Time Trade-Off Technique. Fully allocated costs were determined by prospectively recording resource use in all patients. A societal perspective was taken. By six months after transplantation, the mean health-related quality of life scores of almost all measures had improved compared to pre-transplantation, and they stayed improved throughout the two years of follow up. The mean time trade-off score was 0.57 pre-transplant and 0.70 two years after transplantation. The proportion of individuals employed increased from 30% before transplantation to 45% two years after transplantation. Employment prior to transplantation [relative risk (RR) = 23], graft function (RR 10) and age (RR 1.6 for every decrease in age by one decade), independently predicted employment status after transplantation. The cost of pre-transplant care ($66,782 Can 1994) and the cost of the first year after transplantation ($66,290) were similar. Transplantation was considerably less expensive during the second year after transplantation ($27,875). Over the two years, transplantation was both more effective and less costly than dialysis. This was true for all subgroups of patients examined, including patients older than 60 and diabetics. We conclude that renal transplantation was more effective and less costly than dialysis in all subgroups of patients examined.
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              Pain assessment: global use of the Brief Pain Inventory.

               C Cleeland,  K M Ryan (1994)
              Poorly controlled cancer pain is a significant public health problem throughout the world. There are many barriers that lead to undertreatment of cancer pain. One important barrier is inadequate measurement and assessment of pain. To address this problem, the Pain Research Group of the WHO Collaborating Centre for Symptom Evaluation in Cancer Care has developed the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), a pain assessment tool for use with cancer patients. The BPI measures both the intensity of pain (sensory dimension) and interference of pain in the patient's life (reactive dimension). It also queries the patient about pain relief, pain quality, and patient perception of the cause of pain. This paper describes the development of the Brief Pain Inventory and the various applications to which the BPI is suited. The BPI is a powerful tool and, having demonstrated both reliability and validity across cultures and languages, is being adopted in many countries for clinical pain assessment, epidemiological studies, and in studies of the effectiveness of pain treatment.

                Author and article information

                Health Qual Life Outcomes
                Health Qual Life Outcomes
                Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
                BioMed Central (London )
                2 February 2021
                2 February 2021
                : 19
                [1 ]GRID grid.11942.3f, ISNI 0000 0004 0631 5695, Department of Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, , An-Najah National University, ; Nablus, 44839 Palestine
                [2 ]GRID grid.11942.3f, ISNI 0000 0004 0631 5695, Poison Control and Drug Information Center (PCDIC), College of Medicine and Health Sciences, , An-Najah National University, ; Nablus, 44839 Palestine
                [3 ]GRID grid.11942.3f, ISNI 0000 0004 0631 5695, Department of Clinical and Community Pharmacy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, , An-Najah National University, ; Nablus, 44839 Palestine
                [4 ]GRID grid.11942.3f, ISNI 0000 0004 0631 5695, Clinical Research Centre, , An-Najah National University Hospital, ; Nablus, 44839 Palestine
                © The Author(s) 2021

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                Health & Social care

                palestine, end-stage renal disease, hemodialysis, quality of life, pain


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