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      Chronic disease in a digital health environment

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          Abstract

          Although we know that there are benefits to individual patients from electronic data, the next potential, and potentially the biggest, benefit will come from the technologies known as big data, machine learning, and artificial intelligence. Harnessing the potential of computers to sift through large amounts of data will result in the possibility of generating insights into individual patients, and into whole populations, predicting the risk of hospital admission for an individual, or tracking influenza epidemics to prepare adequate responses. Once the data are reliable, recorded in a computer-interpretable way, new horizons will open.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Major causes of death among men and women in China.

          With China's rapid economic development, the disease burden may have changed in the country. We studied the major causes of death and modifiable risk factors in a nationally representative cohort of 169,871 men and women 40 years of age and older in China. Baseline data on the participants' demographic characteristics, medical history, lifestyle-related risk factors, blood pressure, and body weight were obtained in 1991 with the use of a standard protocol. The follow-up evaluation was conducted in 1999 and 2000, with a follow-up rate of 93.4 percent. We documented 20,033 deaths in 1,239,191 person-years of follow-up. The mortality from all causes was 1480.1 per 100,000 person-years among men and 1190.2 per 100,000 person-years among women. The five leading causes of death were malignant neoplasms (mortality, 374.1 per 100,000 person-years), diseases of the heart (319.1), cerebrovascular disease (310.5), accidents (54.0), and infectious diseases (50.5) among men and diseases of the heart (268.5), cerebrovascular disease (242.3), malignant neoplasms (214.1), pneumonia and influenza (45.9), and infectious diseases (35.3) among women. The multivariate-adjusted relative risk of death and the population attributable risk for preventable risk factors were as follows: hypertension, 1.48 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.44 to 1.53) and 11.7 percent, respectively; cigarette smoking, 1.23 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.18 to 1.27) and 7.9 percent; physical inactivity, 1.20 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.16 to 1.24) and 6.8 percent; and underweight (body-mass index [the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters] below 18.5), 1.47 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.42 to 1.53) and 5.2 percent. Vascular disease and cancer have become the leading causes of death among Chinese adults. Our findings suggest that control of hypertension, smoking cessation, increased physical activity, and improved nutrition should be important strategies for reducing the burden of premature death among adults in China. Copyright 2005 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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            Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factor in the Chinese population: the 2007-2008 China National Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Study.

             Gang Zhao,  Jie Liu,  Pu Ge (2011)
            Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is now the most prevalent and debilitating disease affecting the Chinese population. The goal of the present manuscript was to analyse cardiovascular risk factors and the prevalence of non-fatal CVDs from data gathered from the 2007-2008 China National Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Study. A nationally representative sample of 46 239 adults, 20 years of age or older, was randomly recruited using a multistage stratified design method. Lifestyle factors, diagnosis of CVD, stroke, diabetes, and family history of each subject were collected, and an oral glucose tolerance test or a standard meal test was performed. Various non-fatal CVDs were reported by the subjects. SUDAAN software was used to perform all weighted statistical analyses, with P < 0.05 considered statistically significant. The prevalence of coronary heart disease, stroke, and CVDs was 0.74, 1.07, and 1.78% in males; and 0.51, 0.60, and 1.10% in females, respectively. The presence of CVDs increased with age in both males and females. The prevalence of being overweight or obese, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, or hyperglycaemia was 36.67, 30.09, 67.43, and 26.69% in males; and 29.77, 24.79, 63.98, and 23.62% in females, respectively. In the total sample of 46 239 patients, the prevalence of one subject having 1, 2, 3, or ≥4 of the 5 defined risk factors (i.e. smoking, overweight or obese, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, or hyperglycaemia) was 31.17, 27.38, 17.76, and 10.19%, respectively. Following adjustment for gender and age, the odds ratio of CVDs for those who had 1, 2, 3, or ≥4 risk factors was 2.36, 4.24, 4.88, and 7.22, respectively, when compared with patients with no risk factors. Morbidity attributed to the five defined cardiovascular risk factors was high in the Chinese population, with multiple risk factors present in the same individual. Therefore, reasonable prevention strategies should be designed to attenuate the rapid rise in cardiovascular morbidity.
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              Primary care: an increasingly important contributor to effectiveness, equity, and efficiency of health services. SESPAS report 2012.

              As of 2005, the literature on the benefits of primary care oriented health systems was consistent in showing greater effectiveness, greater efficiency, and greater equity. In the ensuing five years, nothing changed that conclusion, but there is now greater understanding of the mechanisms by which the benefits of primary care are achieved. We now know that, within certain bounds, neither the wealth of a country nor the total number of health personnel are related to health levels. What counts is the existence of key features of health policy (Primary Health Care): universal financial coverage under government control or regulation, attempts to distribute resources equitably, comprehensiveness of services, and low or no copayments for primary care services. All of these, in combination, produce better primary care: greater first contact access and use, more person-focused care over time, greater range of services available and provided when needed, and coordination of care. The evidence is no longer confined mainly to industrialized countries, as new studies show it to be the case in middle and lower income countries. The endorsements of the World Health Organization (in the form of the reports of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health and the World Health Report of 2008, as well a number of other international commissions, reflect the widespread acceptance of the importance of primary health care. Primary health care can now be measured and assessed; all innovations and enhancements in it must serve its essential features in order to be useful. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                FMCH
                Family Medicine and Community Health
                FMCH
                Compuscript (Ireland )
                2009-8774
                2305-6983
                February 2018
                February 2018
                : 6
                : 1
                : 20-25
                Affiliations
                1Australasian College of Health Informatics
                2Outcome Health
                3Department of Health Informatics, University of Melbourne
                4Department of General Practice, Monash University
                5Digital Health Committee of the Australian College of Rural and Remote Medicine
                Author notes
                CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Christopher Pearce, PhD, MFM, MBBS, FRACGP, FACRRM, FACHI, FAICD 250 Mont Albert Road, Surrey Hills, VIC 3127, Australia E-mail: drchrispearce@ 123456mac.com
                Article
                FMCH.2017.0144
                10.15212/FMCH.2017.0144
                Copyright © 2018 Family Medicine and Community Health

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License (CC BY-NC 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. See https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.

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                Self URI (journal page): http://fmch-journal.org/
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                Original Research

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