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      Curcumin Combined with Thalidomide Reduces Expression of STAT3 and Bcl-xL, Leading to Apoptosis in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cell Lines

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          Abstract

          Introduction

          Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a type of blood disorder that exhibits uncontrolled growth and reduced ability to undergo apoptosis. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a family member of transcription factors which promotes carcinogenesis in most human cancers. This effect on AML is accomplished through deregulation of several critical genes, such as B cell lymphoma-extra-large (BCL-XL) which is anti-apoptotic protein. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of curcumin (CUR) and thalidomide (THAL) on apoptosis induction and also the alteration of the mRNA expression level of STAT3 and BCL-XL mRNA on AML cell line compounds.

          Methods

          The growth inhibitory effects of CUR and THAL and their combination were measured by MTT assay in U937 and KG-1 cell lines. The rates of apoptosis induction and cell cycle analysis were measured by concurrent staining with Annexin V and PI. The mRNA expression level of STAT3 and BCL-XL was evaluated by Real-Time PCR.

          Results

          CUR inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in both KG-1 and U937 cells and this effect increased by combination with THAL. The expression level of STAT3 and BCL-XL was significantly down-regulated in KG-1 cells after treatment by CUR and THAL and their combination.

          Conclusion

          Overall, our findings suggested that down-regulation of STAT3 and BCL-XL mRNA expression in response to CUR and THAL treatment lead to inhibition of cell growth and induction of apoptosis.

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          Most cited references 35

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          Bcl-2 heterodimerizes in vivo with a conserved homolog, Bax, that accelerates programed cell death

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            Regulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses by Stat-3 signaling in tumor cells.

            Although tumor progression involves processes such as tissue invasion that can activate inflammatory responses, the immune system largely ignores or tolerates disseminated cancers. The mechanisms that block initiation of immune responses during cancer development are poorly understood. We report here that constitutive activation of Stat-3, a common oncogenic signaling pathway, suppresses tumor expression of proinflammatory mediators. Blocking Stat-3 in tumor cells increases expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines that activate innate immunity and dendritic cells, leading to tumor-specific T-cell responses. In addition, constitutive Stat-3 activity induces production of pleiotropic factors that inhibit dendritic cell functional maturation. Tumor-derived factors inhibit dendritic cell maturation through Stat-3 activation in progenitor cells. Thus, inhibition of antitumor immunity involves a cascade of Stat-3 activation propagating from tumor to dendritic cells. We propose that tumor Stat-3 activity can mediate immune evasion by blocking both the production and sensing of inflammatory signals by multiple components of the immune system.
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              STAT proteins: novel molecular targets for cancer drug discovery.

              Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STATs) are a family of cytoplasmic proteins with roles as signal messengers and transcription factors that participate in normal cellular responses to cytokines and growth factors. Frequently, however, abnormal activity of certain STAT family members, particularly Stat3 and Stat5, is associated with a wide variety of human malignancies, including hematologic, breast, head and neck, and prostate cancers. Application of molecular biology and pharmacology tools in disease-relevant models has confirmed Stat3 as having a causal role in oncogenesis, and provided validation of Stat3 as a target for cancer drug discovery and therapeutic intervention. Furthermore, a constitutively-active mutant form of Stat3 is sufficient to induce oncogenic transformation of cells, which form tumors in vivo. Constitutive activation of Stat3 signaling is accompanied by upregulation of cyclin D1, c-Myc, and Bcl-x, changes consistent with subversion of normal cellular growth and survival control mechanisms. Block of constitutive Stat3 signaling results in growth inhibition and apoptosis of Stat3-positive tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. The observed dependence of certain tumors on constitutive Stat3 signaling for growth and survival has wide implications for cancer therapy, offering the potential for preferential tumor cell killing. This review evaluates constitutive Stat3 activation as a 'cancer-causing' factor, and proposes a number of molecular strategies for targeting Stat3 signaling for therapeutic intervention.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                DDDT
                dddt
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove
                1177-8881
                15 January 2020
                2020
                : 14
                : 185-194
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Hematology Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran, Iran
                [2 ]Hematologic Malignancies Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran, Iran
                [3 ]Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Tehran , Tehran, Iran
                [4 ]Young Researchers & Elite Club Tehran Medical Sciences, Islamic Azad University , Tehran, Iran
                [5 ]Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, School of Allied Health Sciences, Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran, Iran
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Mohsen Nikbakht Hematology, Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran, IranTel +982184902639Fax +982188004140 Email m-nikbakht@sina.tums.ac.ir
                Nasrin Dashti Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, School of Allied Health Sciences, Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran, IranTel +989123583690 Email dashti@tums.ac.ir
                Article
                228610
                10.2147/DDDT.S228610
                6970263
                © 2020 Mohammadi Kian et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 1, References: 42, Pages: 10
                Categories
                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine

                acute myeloid leukemia, curcumin, thalidomide, stat3, bcl-xl

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