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      Dexmedetomidine protects H9c2 cardiomyocytes against oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation-induced intracellular calcium overload and apoptosis through regulating FKBP12.6/RyR2 signaling


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          Intracellular calcium ([Ca 2+]i) overload is a major cause of cell injury during myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Dexmedetomidine (DEX) has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory and organ protective effects. This study aimed to investigate whether pretreatment with DEX could protect H9c2 cardiomyocytes against oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) injury through regulating the Ca 2+ signaling.


          H9c2 cardiomyocytes were subjected to OGD for 12 h, followed by 3 h of reoxygenation. DEX was administered 1 h prior to OGD/R. Cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, level of [Ca 2+]i, cell apoptosis, and the expression of 12.6-kd FK506-binding protein/ryanodine receptor 2 (FKBP12.6/RyR2) and caspase-3 were assessed.


          Cells exposed to OGD/R had decreased cell viability, increased LDH release, elevated [Ca 2+]i level and apoptosis rate, down-regulated expression of FKBP12.6, and up-regulated expression of phosphorylated-Ser2814-RyR2 and cleaved caspase-3. Pretreatment with DEX significantly blocked the above-mentioned changes, alleviating the OGD/R-induced injury in H9c2 cells. Moreover, knockdown of FKBP12.6 by small interfering RNA abolished the protective effects of DEX.


          This study indicates that DEX pretreatment protects the cardiomyocytes against OGD/R-induced injury by inhibiting [Ca 2+]i overload and cell apoptosis via regulating the FKBP12.6/RyR2 signaling. DEX may be used for preventing cardiac I/R injury in the clinical settings.

          Most cited references49

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          The effects of increasing plasma concentrations of dexmedetomidine in humans.

          This study determined the responses to increasing plasma concentrations of dexmedetomidine in humans. Ten healthy men (20-27 yr) provided informed consent and were monitored (underwent electrocardiography, measured arterial, central venous [CVP] and pulmonary artery [PAP] pressures, cardiac output, oxygen saturation, end-tidal carbon dioxide [ETCO2], respiration, blood gas, and catecholamines). Hemodynamic measurements, blood sampling, and psychometric, cold pressor, and baroreflex tests were performed at rest and during sequential 40-min intravenous target infusions of dexmedetomidine (0.5, 0.8, 1.2, 2.0, 3.2, 5.0, and 8.0 ng/ml; baroreflex testing only at 0.5 and 0.8 ng/ml). The initial dose of dexmedetomidine decreased catecholamines 45-76% and eliminated the norepinephrine increase that was seen during the cold pressor test. Catecholamine suppression persisted in subsequent infusions. The first two doses of dexmedetomidine increased sedation 38 and 65%, and lowered mean arterial pressure by 13%, but did not change central venous pressure or pulmonary artery pressure. Subsequent higher doses increased sedation, all pressures, and calculated vascular resistance, and resulted in significant decreases in heart rate, cardiac output, and stroke volume. Recall and recognition decreased at a dose of more than 0.7 ng/ml. The pain rating and mean arterial pressure increase to cold pressor test progressively diminished as the dexmedetomidine dose increased. The baroreflex heart rate slowing as a result of phenylephrine challenge was potentiated at both doses of dexmedetomidine. Respiratory variables were minimally changed during infusions, whereas acid-base was unchanged. Increasing concentrations of dexmedetomidine in humans resulted in progressive increases in sedation and analgesia, decreases in heart rate, cardiac output, and memory. A biphasic (low, then high) dose-response relation for mean arterial pressure, pulmonary arterial pressure, and vascular resistances, and an attenuation of the cold pressor response also were observed.
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            Inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome limits the inflammatory injury following myocardial ischemia-reperfusion in the mouse.

            Successful reperfusion is the most effective strategy to reduce ischemic injury in acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Ischemic injury, however, also triggers a secondary ischemia-independent injury, known as reperfusion injury, contributing to the overall infarct size. We hypothesize that inhibition of the Nod-like Receptor Protein-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome limits infarct size following myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), by inhibiting the inflammatory component of the reperfusion injury.
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              JAK2/STAT3 activation by melatonin attenuates the mitochondrial oxidative damage induced by myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury.

              Ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) is harmful to the cardiovascular system and causes mitochondrial oxidative stress. Numerous data indicate that the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway is specifically involved in preventing myocardial IRI. Melatonin has potent activity against IRI and may regulate JAK2/STAT3 signaling. This study investigated the protective effect of melatonin pretreatment on myocardial IRI and elucidated its potential mechanism. Perfused isolated rat hearts and cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were exposed to melatonin in the absence or presence of the JAK2/STAT3 inhibitor AG490 or JAK2 siRNA and then subjected to IR. Melatonin conferred a cardio-protective effect, as shown by improved postischemic cardiac function, decreased infarct size, reduced apoptotic index, diminished lactate dehydrogenase release, up-regulation of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2, and down-regulation of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax. AG490 or JAK2 siRNA blocked melatonin-mediated cardio-protection by inhibiting JAK2/STAT3 signaling. Melatonin exposure also resulted in a well-preserved mitochondrial redox potential, significantly elevated mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and decreased formation of mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) and malondialdehyde (MDA), which indicates that the IR-induced mitochondrial oxidative damage was significantly attenuated. However, this melatonin-induced effect on mitochondrial function was reversed by AG490 or JAK2 siRNA treatment. In summary, our results demonstrate that melatonin pretreatment can attenuate IRI by reducing IR-induced mitochondrial oxidative damage via the activation of the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                02 September 2019
                : 13
                : 3137-3149
                [1 ]Department of Anesthesiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University , Suzhou, Jiangsu 215006, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Anesthesiology, Affiliated Suzhou Hospital of Nanjing Medical University , Suzhou, Jiangsu 215008, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, University of California Davis Health System , Sacramento, CA 95817, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Fu-Hai Ji; Ke PengDepartment of Anesthesiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University , 188 Shizi Street, Suzhou, Jiangsu215006, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +86 5 126 778 0055; +86 5 126 778 0159Email jifuhaisuda@163.com; pengke0422@163.com

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Author information
                © 2019 Yuan et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                : 22 June 2019
                : 23 August 2019
                Page count
                Figures: 8, Tables: 2, References: 55, Pages: 13
                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine
                dexmedetomidine,h9c2 cardiomyocytes,oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation,apoptosis,intracellular calcium overload, fkbp12.6/ryr2


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