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      Novel Noninvasive Sensitive Determination of Tear Volume Changes in Normal Cats

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          We describe a novel, high-resolution and noninvasive method for measuring tear volume changes in cats. The method entails photographing at the lid margin the tear meniscus area defined by instillation of 0.1% fluorescein solution into the cul-de-sac. The inferior tear meniscus area was obtained from the digitized images with computer-assisted software. The tear meniscus area increased in proportion to the saline volume applied into the conjunctival sac, which validates the technique. Furthermore, this technique detected with high sensitivity previously described increases in tear fluid secretion induced by the P2Y<sub>2</sub> agonist. We demonstrate in cats that changes in conjunctival sac tear volume can be evaluated by measurement of its inferior tear meniscus area.

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          Ocular safety of INS365 ophthalmic solution: a P2Y(2) agonist in healthy subjects.

          The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ocular safety and tolerability of the P2Y(2) receptor agonist, INS365, when applied as eye drops in normal human subjects. This study was a double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized, within subject paired-comparison, dose-escalation study in five cohorts of ten healthy subjects. The concentrations of INS365 ophthalmic solution were 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0% given three times over six hours. Safety was assessed by general and ophthalmic examination and symptomatology. Unanesthetized Schirmer tests were performed in the last cohort of 10 subjects to evaluate the acute effects of INS365 on tear secretion. There were no significant differences in the number of subjects with ocular events reported in placebo-treated eyes compared to INS365-treated eyes. Two adverse events were possibly related to INS365: painless blepharospasm and an increase in lacrimation after 5.0% INS365 instillation. Unanesthetized Schirmer testing showed no acute effects of INS365 on tear secretion, compared to its vehicle, in healthy subjects, in which reflex tearing often produced maximal Schirmer values. INS365 ophthalmic solution was well-tolerated when administered by ocular instillation. Stimulation of ocular surface P2Y(2) receptors was not associated with ocular tolerability issues in healthy subjects.

            Author and article information

            Ophthalmic Res
            Ophthalmic Research
            S. Karger AG
            December 2002
            23 December 2002
            : 34
            : 6
            : 371-374
            Ophthalmic Research Division, Santen Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Ikoma-shi, Nara, Japan
            67042 Ophthalmic Res 2002;34:371–374
            © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

            Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

            Page count
            Figures: 3, References: 10, Pages: 4
            Original Paper


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