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      Zearalenone Affects Immune-Related Parameters in Lymphoid Organs and Serum of Rats Vaccinated with Porcine Parvovirus Vaccine


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          Rats were administered zearalenone (ZEA) via gavage at dosages of 0, 1, 5, and 30 mg/kg for 36 days. On treatment day 8, inactivated porcine parvovirus vaccine (Vac) was injected intraperitoneally. Antibody production against porcine parvovirus was then measured as a function of ZEA treatment. Compared to the vaccine alone, ZEA treatment, with or without Vac, decreased the serum level of IgG. The level of IgM decreased in all ZEA groups at day 22, but the decrease was sustained only in the medium-dose ZEA group at day 36. The level of IgA was unchanged in the Vac only and ZEA groups at day 22, but was decreased in the 5 mg/kg ZEA plus Vac group compared to the Vac only group at day 36. The level of IgE was decreased by all doses of ZEA at day 22, but was unaffected in ZEA plus Vac groups compared to the Vac only group. The levels of IL-1 in the thymus and spleen; INF-γ in serum; IL-2, IL-6, and IL-10 in the thymus; and IL-10 and IFN-γ in the spleen decreased after ZEA administration. Furthermore, the levels of IL-1β in the spleen and mesenteric lymph node, IL-1β in the thymus, IL-2 in the thymus and spleen, IL-6 in the thymus, IL-10 and IFN-γ in the spleen, and GM-CSF and TNF-α in the thymus decreased after vaccination in rats exposed to ZEA. In conclusion, these results suggest that ZEA exposure via drinking water can cause an immunosuppressive effect by decreasing immunoglobulins in serum and cytokines in lymphoid organs.

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          Review on the toxicity, occurrence, metabolism, detoxification, regulations and intake of zearalenone: an oestrogenic mycotoxin.

          Zearalenone (ZEA) is a mycotoxin produced mainly by fungi belonging to the genus Fusarium in foods and feeds. It is frequently implicated in reproductive disorders of farm animals and occasionally in hyperoestrogenic syndromes in humans. There is evidence that ZEA and its metabolites possess oestrogenic activity in pigs, cattle and sheep. However, ZEA is of a relatively low acute toxicity after oral or interperitoneal administration in mice, rat and pig. The biotransformation for ZEA in animals involves the formation of two metabolites alpha-zearalenol (alpha-ZEA) and beta-zearalenol (beta-ZEA) which are subsequently conjugated with glucuronic acid. Moreover, ZEA has also been shown to be hepatotoxic, haematotoxic, immunotoxic and genotoxic. The exact mechanism of ZEA toxicity is not completely established. This paper gives an overview about the acute, subacute and chronic toxicity, reproductive and developmental toxicity, carcinogenicity, genotoxicity and immunotoxicity of ZEA and its metabolites. ZEA is commonly found on several foods and feeds in the temperate regions of Europe, Africa, Asia, America and Oceania. Recent data about the worldwide contamination of foods and feeds by ZEA are considered in this review. Due to economic losses engendered by ZEA and its impact on human and animal health, several strategies for detoxifying contaminated foods and feeds have been described in the literature including physical, chemical and biological process. Dietary intakes of ZEA were reported from few countries from the world. The mean dietary intakes for ZEA have been estimated at 20 ng/kgb.w./day for Canada, Denmark and Norway and at 30 ng/kgb.w./day for the USA. The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) established a provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) for ZEA of 0.5 microg/kg of body weight.
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            The biology of interleukin-2 and interleukin-15: implications for cancer therapy and vaccine design.

            Interleukin-2 and interleukin-15 have pivotal roles in the control of the life and death of lymphocytes. Although their heterotrimeric receptors have two receptor subunits in common, these two cytokines have contrasting roles in adaptive immune responses. The unique role of interleukin-2 is in the elimination of self-reactive T cells to prevent autoimmunity. By contrast, interleukin-15 is dedicated to the prolonged maintenance of memory T-cell responses to invading pathogens. As discussed in this Review, the biology of these cytokines will affect the development of novel therapies for malignancy and autoimmune diseases, as well as the design of vaccines against infectious diseases.
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              Stress hormones, proinflammatory and antiinflammatory cytokines, and autoimmunity.

              Recent evidence indicates that glucocorticoids and catecholamines, the major stress hormones, inhibit the production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-12, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and interferon (IFN)-gamma, whereas they stimulate the production of antiinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-10, IL-4, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta. Thus, systemically, an excessive immune response, through activation of the stress system, stimulates an important negative feedback mechanism, which protects the organism from an "overshoot" of proinflammatory cytokines and other products of activated macrophages with tissue-damaging potential. Conversely, in certain local responses and under certain conditions, stress hormones actually may boost regional immune responses, through induction of TNF-alpha, IL-1, and IL-8, and by inhibiting TGF-beta production. Therefore, conditions that are associated with significant changes in stress system activity, such as acute or chronic stress, cessation of chronic stress, severe exercise, and pregnancy and the postpartum period, through modulation of the systemic or local pro/antiinflammatory cytokine balance, may suppress or potentiate autoimmune diseases activity and/or progression.

                Author and article information

                Toxicol Res
                Toxicol Res
                Toxicological Research
                The Korean Society of Toxicology
                December 2012
                : 28
                : 4
                : 279-288
                [1 ]Toxicology & Residue Chemistry Division, Animal, Plant and Fisheries Quarantine and Inspection Agency, Anyang
                [2 ]GLP Research Center, College of Natural Science, Hoseo University, 164 Sechul, Baebang, Asan
                []Lipid Chemistry Laboratory, Kyungpook University, Daegu, Korea
                Author notes
                [+ ]Correspondence to: Hwan-Goo Kang, Toxicology & Residue Chemistry Division, Animal, Plant and Fisheries Quarantine and Inspection Agency, Anyang 430-757, Korea E-mail: kanghg67@ 123456korea.kr
                [# ]Co-corresponding author.
                Copyright ©2012, The Korean Society of Toxicology

                This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



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