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      Chromosomes of parasitic wasps of the superfamily Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): An overview

      Comparative Cytogenetics

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          An overview of the current knowledge of chromosome sets of the parasitoid superfamily Chalcidoidea is given. Karyotypes of approximately 240 members of this group, i.e. just above one percent of described species, are studied up to now. Techniques for obtaining and analyzing preparations of chalcid chromosomes are outlined, including the so-called “traditional” and “modern” methods of differential staining as well as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Among the Chalcidoidea, the haploid chromosome number can vary from n = 3 to n = 11, with a clear mode at n = 6 and a second local maximum at n = 10. In this group, most chromosomes are either metacentric or submetacentric, but acrocentrics and/or subtelocentrics also can predominate, especially within karyotypes of certain Chalcidoidea with higher chromosome numbers. The following main types of chromosomal mutations are characteristic of chalcid karyotypes: inversions, fusions, translocations, polyploidy, aneuploidy and B chromosome variation. Although karyotype evolution of this superfamily was mainly studied using phylogenetic reconstructions based on morphological and/or molecular characters, chromosomal synapomorphies of certain groups were also revealed. Taxonomic implications of karyotypic features of the Chalcidoidea are apparently the most important at the species level, especially among cryptic taxa.

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          Most cited references 42

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          Life-history strategies in parasitoid wasps: a comparative analysis of 'ovigeny'

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            Modes of spontaneous chromosomal mutation and karyotype evolution in ants with reference to the minimum interaction hypothesis.

            Aspects of chromosomal mutation and karyotype evolution in ants are discussed with reference to recently accumulated karyological data, and to detailed karyotype analyses of several species or species complexes with low chromosome number and unusual chromosomal mutations (the complexes of Myrmecia pilosula (Smith) (n = 1, 5 or 9 to 16); M. piliventris Smith (n = 2, 3-4, 17 or 32), and Ponera scabra Wheeler (n = 3 or 4, 2n = 7 or 8). Translocations and Robertsonian polymorphisms are confirmed to be non-randomly distributed among ants -the former are found at high frequencies in species with low chromosome numbers (n less than or equal to 12), while the latter predominate in those with high numbers (n greater than 12). This situation is consistent with the minimum interaction hypothesis of Imai et al. (1986), under which translocations are expected to occur most frequently in low-numbered karyotypes, and that the resulting genetic risks are minimized by increases in chromosome and/or arm numbers through centric fission and pericentric inversion. Centric fusion is considered to be a transient event in karyotype evolution, resulting from telomere instability in acrocentric chromosomes.
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              A phylogenetic analysis of the megadiverse Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera)

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
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                Journal
                Comparative Cytogenetics
                CCG
                Pensoft Publishers
                1993-078X
                1993-0771
                August 25 2020
                August 25 2020
                : 14
                : 3
                : 399-416
                Article
                10.3897/CompCytogen.v14i3.56535
                © 2020

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