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      Mechanisms and mediators of lung injury after acute kidney injury

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      Nature Reviews Nephrology

      Springer Nature

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          Most cited references 101

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          Acute kidney injury, mortality, length of stay, and costs in hospitalized patients.

          The marginal effects of acute kidney injury on in-hospital mortality, length of stay (LOS), and costs have not been well described. A consecutive sample of 19,982 adults who were admitted to an urban academic medical center, including 9210 who had two or more serum creatinine (SCr) determinations, was evaluated. The presence and degree of acute kidney injury were assessed using absolute and relative increases from baseline to peak SCr concentration during hospitalization. Large increases in SCr concentration were relatively rare (e.g., >or=2.0 mg/dl in 105 [1%] patients), whereas more modest increases in SCr were common (e.g., >or=0.5 mg/dl in 1237 [13%] patients). Modest changes in SCr were significantly associated with mortality, LOS, and costs, even after adjustment for age, gender, admission International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis, severity of illness (diagnosis-related group weight), and chronic kidney disease. For example, an increase in SCr >or=0.5 mg/dl was associated with a 6.5-fold (95% confidence interval 5.0 to 8.5) increase in the odds of death, a 3.5-d increase in LOS, and nearly 7500 dollars in excess hospital costs. Acute kidney injury is associated with significantly increased mortality, LOS, and costs across a broad spectrum of conditions. Moreover, outcomes are related directly to the severity of acute kidney injury, whether characterized by nominal or percentage changes in serum creatinine.
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            An official American Thoracic Society workshop report: features and measurements of experimental acute lung injury in animals.

            Acute lung injury (ALI) is well defined in humans, but there is no agreement as to the main features of acute lung injury in animal models. A Committee was organized to determine the main features that characterize ALI in animal models and to identify the most relevant methods to assess these features. We used a Delphi approach in which a series of questionnaires were distributed to a panel of experts in experimental lung injury. The Committee concluded that the main features of experimental ALI include histological evidence of tissue injury, alteration of the alveolar capillary barrier, presence of an inflammatory response, and evidence of physiological dysfunction; they recommended that, to determine if ALI has occurred, at least three of these four main features of ALI should be present. The Committee also identified key "very relevant" and "somewhat relevant" measurements for each of the main features of ALI and recommended the use of least one "very relevant" measurement and preferably one or two additional separate measurements to determine if a main feature of ALI is present. Finally, the Committee emphasized that not all of the measurements listed can or should be performed in every study, and that measurements not included in the list are by no means "irrelevant." Our list of features and measurements of ALI is intended as a guide for investigators, and ultimately investigators should choose the particular measurements that best suit the experimental questions being addressed as well as take into consideration any unique aspects of the experimental design.
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              Minimal changes of serum creatinine predict prognosis in patients after cardiothoracic surgery: a prospective cohort study.

              Acute renal failure increases risk of death after cardiac surgery. However, it is not known whether more subtle changes in renal function might have an impact on outcome. Thus, the association between small serum creatinine changes after surgery and mortality, independent of other established perioperative risk indicators, was analyzed. In a prospective cohort study in 4118 patients who underwent cardiac and thoracic aortic surgery, the effect of changes in serum creatinine within 48 h postoperatively on 30-d mortality was analyzed. Cox regression was used to correct for various established demographic preoperative risk indicators, intraoperative parameters, and postoperative complications. In the 2441 patients in whom serum creatinine decreased, early mortality was 2.6% in contrast to 8.9% in patients with increased postoperative serum creatinine values. Patients with large decreases (DeltaCrea or =0.5 mg/dl. For all groups, increases in mortality remained significant in multivariate analyses, including postoperative renal replacement therapy. After cardiac and thoracic aortic surgery, 30-d mortality was lowest in patients with a slight postoperative decrease in serum creatinine. Any even minimal increase or profound decrease of serum creatinine was associated with a substantial decrease in survival.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Reviews Nephrology
                Nat Rev Nephrol
                Springer Nature
                1759-5061
                1759-507X
                January 2016
                October 6 2015
                : 12
                : 1
                : 48-60
                Article
                10.1038/nrneph.2015.158
                © 2015

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