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      Induction of Trained Immunity by Recombinant Vaccines

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          Abstract

          Vaccines represent an important strategy to protect humans against a wide variety of pathogens and have even led to eradicating some diseases. Although every vaccine is developed to induce specific protection for a particular pathogen, some vaccine formulations can also promote trained immunity, which is a non-specific memory-like feature developed by the innate immune system. It is thought that trained immunity can protect against a wide variety of pathogens other than those contained in the vaccine formulation. The non-specific memory of the trained immunity-based vaccines (TIbV) seems beneficial for the immunized individual, as it may represent a powerful strategy that contributes to the control of pathogen outbreaks, reducing morbidity and mortality. A wide variety of respiratory viruses, including respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) and metapneumovirus (hMPV), cause serious illness in children under 5 years old and the elderly. To address this public health problem, we have developed recombinant BCG vaccines that have shown to be safe and immunogenic against hRSV or hMPV. Besides the induction of specific adaptive immunity against the viral antigens, these vaccines could generate trained immunity against other respiratory pathogens. Here, we discuss some of the features of trained immunity induced by BCG and put forward the notion that recombinant BCGs expressing hRSV or hMPV antigens have the capacity to simultaneously induce specific adaptive immunity and non-specific trained immunity. These recombinant BCG vaccines could be considered as TIbV capable of inducing simultaneously the development of specific protection against hRSV or hMPV, as well as non-specific trained-immunity-based protection against other pathogenic viruses.

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          Most cited references 111

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          Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19): The epidemic and the challenges

          Highlights • Emergence of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in China has caused a large global outbreak and major public health issue. • At 9 February 2020, data from the WHO has shown >37 000 confirmed cases in 28 countries (>99% of cases detected in China). • 2019-nCoV is spread by human-to-human transmission via droplets or direct contact. • Infection estimated to have an incubation period of 2–14 days and a basic reproduction number of 2.24–3.58. • Controlling infection to prevent spread of the 2019-nCoV is the primary intervention being used.
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            A newly discovered human pneumovirus isolated from young children with respiratory tract disease

            From 28 young children in the Netherlands, we isolated a paramyxovirus that was identified as a tentative new member of the Metapneumovirus genus based on virological data, sequence homology and gene constellation. Previously, avian pneumovirus was the sole member of this recently assigned genus, hence the provisional name for the newly discovered virus: human metapneumovirus. The clinical symptoms of the children from whom the virus was isolated were similar to those caused by human respiratory syncytial virus infection, ranging from upper respiratory tract disease to severe bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Serological studies showed that by the age of five years, virtually all children in the Netherlands have been exposed to human metapneumovirus and that the virus has been circulating in humans for at least 50 years.
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              The COVID-19 vaccine development landscape

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Immunol
                Front Immunol
                Front. Immunol.
                Frontiers in Immunology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-3224
                07 January 2021
                2020
                : 11
                Affiliations
                1 Millenium Institute on Immunology and Immunotherapy, Departamento de Genética Molecular y Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile , Santiago, Chile
                2 Departamento de Endocrinología, Facultad de Medicina, Escuela de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile , Santiago, Chile
                Author notes

                Edited by: Silvia Sánchez-Ramón, Complutense University of Madrid, Spain

                Reviewed by: Jorge Domínguez-Andrés, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Netherlands; Michael Schotsaert, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, United States

                *Correspondence: Alexis M. Kalergis, akalergis@ 123456bio.puc.cl

                This article was submitted to Vaccines and Molecular Therapeutics, a section of the journal Frontiers in Immunology

                Article
                10.3389/fimmu.2020.611946
                7873984
                Copyright © 2021 Covián, Ríos, Berríos-Rojas, Bueno and Kalergis

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 114, Pages: 9, Words: 4009
                Categories
                Immunology
                Review

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