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      Toxicity of Kadsura coccinea (Lem.) A. C. Sm. Essential Oil to the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

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          Abstract

          Kadsura coccinea (Lem.) A.C. Smith is an evergreen, woody climbing plant that is widely distributed throughout southwest mainland China. Extracts of this plant are used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of various diseases, like cancer and dermatosis, and as an anodyne to relieve pain, while the leaves are used to treat eczema. In the current study, the toxicity of essential oil from its stem (EOKC) was studied against two strains of bed bugs ( Cimex lectularius). Essential oil from the plant was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS. The major compound identified was β-caryophyllene (24.73%), followed by caryophyllene oxide (5.91%), α-humulene (3.48%), and β-pinene (2.54%). Preliminary screening was performed by topically delivering a 1 µL droplet of the treatments dissolved in acetone. At 24 h after treatment, the EOKC induced mortality rates of 61.9% and 66.7% in the Bayonne and Ft. Dix strains, respectively, at 100 µg/bug. Four major compounds—β-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, α-humulene, and β-pinene—were selected based on their availability and were subjected to topical, residual, and fumigation methods. When applied topically, only β-caryophyllene induced high toxicity in both strains. None of the selected compounds induced significant toxicity in the residual and fumigation methods.

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          Botanical insecticides, deterrents, and repellents in modern agriculture and an increasingly regulated world.

           Murray Isman (2006)
          Botanical insecticides have long been touted as attractive alternatives to synthetic chemical insecticides for pest management because botanicals reputedly pose little threat to the environment or to human health. The body of scientific literature documenting bioactivity of plant derivatives to arthropod pests continues to expand, yet only a handful of botanicals are currently used in agriculture in the industrialized world, and there are few prospects for commercial development of new botanical products. Pyrethrum and neem are well established commercially, pesticides based on plant essential oils have recently entered the marketplace, and the use of rotenone appears to be waning. A number of plant substances have been considered for use as insect antifeedants or repellents, but apart from some natural mosquito repellents, little commercial success has ensued for plant substances that modify arthropod behavior. Several factors appear to limit the success of botanicals, most notably regulatory barriers and the availability of competing products (newer synthetics, fermentation products, microbials) that are cost-effective and relatively safe compared with their predecessors. In the context of agricultural pest management, botanical insecticides are best suited for use in organic food production in industrialized countries but can play a much greater role in the production and postharvest protection of food in developing countries.
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            Botanical insecticides: for richer, for poorer.

            Botanical insecticides presently play only a minor role in insect pest management and crop protection; increasingly stringent regulatory requirements in many jurisdictions have prevented all but a handful of botanical products from reaching the marketplace in North America and Europe in the past 20 years. Nonetheless, the regulatory environment and public health needs are creating opportunities for the use of botanicals in industrialized countries in situations where human and animal health are foremost--for pest control in and around homes and gardens, in commercial kitchens and food storage facilities and on companion animals. Botanicals may also find favour in organic food production, both in the field and in controlled environments. In this review it is argued that the greatest benefits from botanicals might be achieved in developing countries, where human pesticide poisonings are most prevalent. Recent studies in Africa suggest that extracts of locally available plants can be effective as crop protectants, either used alone or in mixtures with conventional insecticides at reduced rates. These studies suggest that indigenous knowledge and traditional practice can make valuable contributions to domestic food production in countries where strict enforcement of pesticide regulations is impractical.
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              Maintenance of a laboratory colony of Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) using an artificial feeding technique.

              The in vitro maintenance technique described in this article has been used successfully to rear Cimex lectularius (L.) by feeding for >2 yr all nymphal stages and adults through parafilm "M" sealing film on different types of blood. Using this feeding technique, the subsequent egg production of female bedbugs was remarkably high. The blood was maintained at 37 degrees C to enhance the attachment of the bugs. The effect of anticoagulation methods for the blood meal was investigated, and heparinized blood was found the most suitable for feeding bugs. All stages of the bugs fed weekly on blood in the artificial feeding system remained attached for up to 0.5-1.0 h, until completion of their blood meals, and all reached engorged weights. More than 90% of the bugs fed artificially on whole blood, and they molted or laid eggs successfully.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Insects
                Insects
                insects
                Insects
                MDPI
                2075-4450
                07 June 2019
                June 2019
                : 10
                : 6
                Affiliations
                [1 ]National Center for Natural Products Research, The University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677, USA; jurehman@ 123456olemiss.edu (J.U.R.); meiwang@ 123456olemiss.edu (M.W.); amar@ 123456olemiss.edu (A.G.C.)
                [2 ]TCM and Ethnomedicine Innovation & Development International Laboratory, Innovative Drug Research Institute, School of Pharmacy, Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, Changsha 410208, China; yangyupei24@ 123456163.com (Y.Y.); ybliu2018@ 123456163.com (Y.L.); libin_hucm@ 123456hotmail.com (B.L.); 0623_sister@ 123456163.com (Y.Q.)
                [3 ]Department of BioMolecular Sciences, Division of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, The University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677, USA
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: wangwei402@ 123456hotmail.com (W.W.); ikhan@ 123456olemiss.edu (I.A.K.); Tel.: +86-136-5743-8606 (W.W.); +1-662-915-7821 (I.A.K.)
                Article
                insects-10-00162
                10.3390/insects10060162
                6627317
                31181642
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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