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      First Report of Outbreaks of the Fall Armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), a New Alien Invasive Pest in West and Central Africa

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          Abstract

          The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda is a prime noctuid pest of maize on the American continents where it has remained confined despite occasional interceptions by European quarantine services in recent years. The pest has currently become a new invasive species in West and Central Africa where outbreaks were recorded for the first time in early 2016. The presence of at least two distinct haplotypes within samples collected on maize in Nigeria and São Tomé suggests multiple introductions into the African continent. Implications of this new threat to the maize crop in tropical Africa are briefly discussed.

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          DNA barcodes distinguish species of tropical Lepidoptera.

          Although central to much biological research, the identification of species is often difficult. The use of DNA barcodes, short DNA sequences from a standardized region of the genome, has recently been proposed as a tool to facilitate species identification and discovery. However, the effectiveness of DNA barcoding for identifying specimens in species-rich tropical biotas is unknown. Here we show that cytochrome c oxidase I DNA barcodes effectively discriminate among species in three Lepidoptera families from Area de Conservación Guanacaste in northwestern Costa Rica. We found that 97.9% of the 521 species recognized by prior taxonomic work possess distinctive cytochrome c oxidase I barcodes and that the few instances of interspecific sequence overlap involve very similar species. We also found two or more barcode clusters within each of 13 supposedly single species. Covariation between these clusters and morphological and/or ecological traits indicates overlooked species complexes. If these results are general, DNA barcoding will significantly aid species identification and discovery in tropical settings.
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            Discovery and characterization of field resistance to Bt maize: Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Puerto Rico.

            Transgenic maize, Zea mays L., event TC1507 produces the Cry1F protein to provide protection from feeding by several important lepidopteran pests, including Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Reports of reduced field performance against this species in Puerto Rico were investigated, and laboratory bioassays showed that S. frugiperda collected from the affected area exhibited lower sensitivity to the Cry1F protein compared with typical colonies from other regions. The resistance was shown to be autosomally inherited and highly recessive. The Puerto Rico colony was shown to be moderately less sensitive than susceptible laboratory strains to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac, but the differences in sensitivity were dramatically smaller than for Cry1F. Potential contributory factors to the emergence of resistance to Cry1F in Puerto Rico populations of S. frugiperda include the tropical island geography, unusually large population sizes in 2006, and drought conditions reducing the availability of alternative hosts. In response to this resistance incident, the technology providers have stopped commercial sales of TC1507 maize in Puerto Rico pending potential reversion to susceptibility.
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              Author and article information

              Contributors
              Role: Editor
              Journal
              PLoS One
              PLoS ONE
              plos
              plosone
              PLoS ONE
              Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
              1932-6203
              27 October 2016
              2016
              : 11
              : 10
              Affiliations
              [1 ]International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), 08 BP 0932 Tri Postal, Cotonou, Benin
              [2 ]IITA, PMB 5320, Ibadan, Nigeria
              [3 ]FAO, BP 2643, Libreville, Gabon
              [4 ]IITA, PMB 3112, Kano, Nigeria
              Pennsylvania State University, UNITED STATES
              Author notes

              Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

              • Conceptualization: GG PLK.

              • Investigation: GG SS AT.

              • Writing – original draft: GG PLK MT.

              • Writing – review & editing: SS AT.

              Article
              PONE-D-16-35460
              10.1371/journal.pone.0165632
              5082806
              27788251
              © 2016 Goergen et al

              This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

              Page count
              Figures: 4, Tables: 0, Pages: 9
              Product
              Funding
              The authors gratefully acknowledge the CGIAR Research Program on MAIZE for financial support.
              Categories
              Research Article
              Biology and Life Sciences
              Agriculture
              Crop Science
              Crops
              Cereal Crops
              Maize
              Biology and Life Sciences
              Organisms
              Plants
              Grasses
              Maize
              Research and Analysis Methods
              Model Organisms
              Plant and Algal Models
              Maize
              People and Places
              Geographical Locations
              Africa
              Biology and Life Sciences
              Organisms
              Animals
              Invertebrates
              Arthropoda
              Insects
              Spodoptera
              People and Places
              Geographical Locations
              Africa
              Nigeria
              Biology and Life Sciences
              Organisms
              Animals
              Invertebrates
              Arthropoda
              Insects
              Moths and Butterflies
              Biology and life sciences
              Molecular biology
              Molecular biology techniques
              DNA barcoding
              Research and analysis methods
              Molecular biology techniques
              DNA barcoding
              Biology and life sciences
              Evolutionary biology
              Evolutionary systematics
              Molecular systematics
              DNA barcoding
              Biology and life sciences
              Taxonomy
              Evolutionary systematics
              Molecular systematics
              DNA barcoding
              Computer and information sciences
              Data management
              Taxonomy
              Evolutionary systematics
              Molecular systematics
              DNA barcoding
              Earth Sciences
              Seasons
              Autumn
              Biology and Life Sciences
              Developmental Biology
              Life Cycles
              Larvae
              Custom metadata
              All relevant data are within the paper.

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