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      Risk Factors, Clinical Presentation, Diagnosis, and Treatment Outcomes of Portal Vein Thrombosis: A Five-Year Hospital-Based Study From Qatar

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          Abstract

          Background

          There is a lack of robust epidemiological information on portal vein thrombosis (PVT) in Qatar. This study aimed to describe the risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment outcomes of PVT in patients with and without liver cirrhosis admitted to Hamad General Hospital.

          Methods

          This retrospective observational study was conducted at Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar. Consecutive patients with PVT between January 1, 2015 and December 31, 2019 were included in this study.

          Results

          We included 363 cases representing 0.05% of all inpatients admitted to our hospital during the study period. Their mean age was 47.79 ± 14.48 years. There were 258 (71.1%) males and 105 (28.9%) females. Abdominal pain was the most common presenting symptom (160 (44.1%)), while splenomegaly was the most common presenting sign (158 (43.5%)). Liver cirrhosis was the most frequent risk factor for PVT (147 (40.5%)), while no risk factors were identified in 49 (13.5%) patients. Anticoagulant therapy was given to 171/207 (82.6%) patients with acute PVT and 19/156 (12.2%) patients with chronic PVT. The options used for anticoagulation treatment were: low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) or unfractionated heparin alone, LMWH/unfractionated heparin followed by warfarin, and direct-acting oral anticoagulants (rivaroxaban). Out of the 262 patients in whom PVT recanalization was assessed, 43.8% of the cases had recanalization after anticoagulation treatment, while 12.6% of them had spontaneous recanalization without such therapy. A comparison between different anticoagulants used in this study showed no significant difference in the effectiveness of the three regimens used. The 30-day mortality was recorded for 71 patients (19.5%). The major risk factors for 30-day mortality were: age over 45 years, male sex, hepatic failure, malignancies, and bilirubin > 34 µmol/L.

          Conclusion

          PVT is a rare clinical entity in Qatar with liver cirrhosis being the most common risk factor. Early administration of anticoagulation therapy is associated with a significant recanalization, while age > 45 years, male sex, hepatic failure, malignancies, and bilirubin > 34 µmol/L are independent risk factors for 30-day mortality.

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          Most cited references35

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          Acute portal vein thrombosis unrelated to cirrhosis: a prospective multicenter follow-up study.

          Current recommendations for early anticoagulation in acute portal vein thrombosis unrelated to cirrhosis or malignancy are based on limited evidence. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the risk factors, outcome, and prognosis in patients managed according to these recommendations. We enrolled 102 patients with acute thrombosis of the portal vein, or its left or right branch. Laboratory investigations for prothrombotic factors were centralized. Thrombus extension and recanalization were assessed by expert radiologists. A local risk factor was identified in 21% of patients, and one or several general prothrombotic conditions in 52%. Anticoagulation was given to 95 patients. After a median of 234 days, the portal vein and its left or right branch were patent in 39% of anticoagulated patients (versus 13% initially), the splenic vein in 80% (versus 57% initially), and the superior mesenteric vein in 73% (versus 42% initially). Failure to recanalize the portal vein was independently related to the presence of ascites (hazard ratio 3.8, 95% confidence interval 1.3-11.1) and an occluded splenic vein (hazard ratio 3.5, 95% confidence interval 1.4-8.9). Gastrointestinal bleeding and intestinal infarction occurred in nine and two patients, respectively. Two patients died from causes unrelated to thrombosis or anticoagulation therapy. Recanalization occurs in one-third of patients receiving early anticoagulation for acute portal vein thrombosis, whereas thrombus extension, intestinal infarction, severe bleeding, and death are rare. Alternative therapy should be considered when ascites and splenic vein obstruction are present.
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            Causes and consequences of portal vein thrombosis in 1,243 patients with cirrhosis: results of a longitudinal study.

            In cirrhosis, portal vein thrombosis (PVT) could be a cause or a consequence of the progression of liver disease. We analyzed data from a prospective trial of ultrasound screening for hepatocellular carcinoma in order to identify risk factors for and the impact of PVT in patients with cirrhosis. In all, 1,243 adults with cirrhosis without PVT were enrolled from 43 liver units in France and Belgium between June 2000 and March 2006. The mean follow-up was 47 months. Doppler ultrasonography was used to check the portal vein. Progression of liver disease was defined by the development of: ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, variceal bleeding, prothrombin 45 μmol/L, albumin 115 μmol/L. G20210A prothrombin and factor V gene mutations were assessed in sera stored at three large centers. The 5-year cumulative incidence of PVT was 10.7%. PVT was mostly partial and varied over time. The development of PVT was independently associated with baseline esophageal varices (P = 0.01) and prothrombin time (P = 0.002), but not with disease progression before PVT, or prothrombotic mutations. Disease progression was independently associated with baseline age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11-2.17), body mass index (HR 1.40; 95% CI: 1.01-1.95), prothrombin time (HR 0.79; 95% CI: 0.70-0.90), serum albumin (HR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.94-0.99), and esophageal varices (HR 1.70; 95% CI: 1.21-2.38) but not with the prior development of PVT (HR 1.32; 95% CI: 0.68-2.65). In patients with cirrhosis, the development of PVT is associated with the severity of liver disease at baseline, but does not follow a recent progression of liver disease. There is no evidence that the development of PVT is responsible for further progression of liver disease. © 2014 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.
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              Diagnosis, Development, and Treatment of Portal Vein Thrombosis in Patients With and Without Cirrhosis

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Clin Med Res
                J Clin Med Res
                Elmer Press
                Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
                Elmer Press
                1918-3003
                1918-3011
                May 2022
                31 May 2022
                : 14
                : 5
                : 209-217
                Affiliations
                [a ]Department of Medicine, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar
                [b ]Weill Cornell Medical College, Ar-Rayyan, Qatar
                Author notes
                [c ]Corresponding Author: Fahmi Yousef Khan, Department of Medicine, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar. Email: fakhanqal@ 123456gmail.com
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5741-7435
                Article
                10.14740/jocmr4718
                9187352
                35720227
                5ab36f21-819f-4511-873c-d8fb9f554024
                Copyright 2022, Khan et al.

                This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 4 April 2022
                : 7 May 2022
                Categories
                Original Article

                Medicine
                portal vein,thrombosis,malignancy,liver cirrhosis,thrombophilia
                Medicine
                portal vein, thrombosis, malignancy, liver cirrhosis, thrombophilia

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