Background/Aim: The etiology of minimal-change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) is poorly understood. It has been proposed that cell-mediated immunity and T-cell activation are key features of this glomerular disease. Interleukin (IL)-18, a novel interferon-γ-stimulating factor, may act as an important effector molecule involved in various immune responses. To our knowledge, very little is known about the involvement of IL-18 in NCNS. The aim here was to define further the involvement of IL-18 in MCNS. Methods: To understand the role of this cytokine, in vitro IL-18 levels were analyzed by a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method in 16 patients with MCNS who were either in a stable or active condition. The disease controls included 16 patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN). The IL-18 levels were compared with values in healthy controls. Results: Significantly increased spontaneous and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated production of IL-18 was detected in peripheral blood monocyte (PBM) cultures of MCNS patients with the nephrotic syndrome (NS) as compared with those of normal controls. Moreover, when individual MCNS patients were followed through their clinical illness, IL-18 levels were increased during the active phase and normalized as the patients went into remission. The amounts of IL-18 are significantly correlated with the levels of vascular permeability factor (VPF) in MCNS patients. Conclusions: Thus, in MCNS patients, the level of IL-18 was increased and this increase was related to the activity of this disease. The data provide circumstantial evidence for a role of IL-18 in MCNS.