rBAT, together with its subunit b<sup>0,+</sup> AT mediates the hetero- and homoexchange of neutral and dibasic amino acids. Since the heteroexchange of dibasic amino acids against neutral amino acids is coupled to net transport of positive charge, this transport is electrogenic. Extracellular addition of histidine could create an inward or an outward current depending on extracellular pH (pH<sub>e</sub>) and cell membrane potential. It has been concluded that histidine may be transported in both its protonated and its neutral form. In this study measurements of cytosolic pH (pH<sub>i</sub>) were performed to test this hypothesis. As a result, addition of protonated histidine at acidic pH<sub>e</sub> to Xenopus oocytes expressing rBAT creates an inward current which is paralleled by cytosolic acidification. Both can be reduced by increase of pH<sub>e</sub>. At alkaline pH<sub>e</sub> and simultaneous depolarization of the cell membrane the effect of histidine on pH<sub>i</sub> is virtually abolished. The neutral amino acid leucine does not alter cytosolic pH at neither pH 6.0 nor at pH 8.0. In conclusion, histidine can be transported in either its neutral or its protonated form. Transport of the protonated form is facilitated by extracellular acidification and hyperpolarization of the cell membrane.