62
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Quantitative patterns between plant volatile emissions induced by biotic stresses and the degree of damage

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Plants have to cope with a plethora of biotic stresses such as herbivory and pathogen attacks throughout their life cycle. The biotic stresses typically trigger rapid emissions of volatile products of lipoxygenase (LOX) pathway (LOX products: various C 6 aldehydes, alcohols, and derivatives, also called green leaf volatiles) associated with oxidative burst. Further a variety of defense pathways is activated, leading to induction of synthesis and emission of a complex blend of volatiles, often including methyl salicylate, indole, mono-, homo-, and sesquiterpenes. The airborne volatiles are involved in systemic responses leading to elicitation of emissions from non-damaged plant parts. For several abiotic stresses, it has been demonstrated that volatile emissions are quantitatively related to the stress dose. The biotic impacts under natural conditions vary in severity from mild to severe, but it is unclear whether volatile emissions also scale with the severity of biotic stresses in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, biotic impacts are typically recurrent, but it is poorly understood how direct stress-triggered and systemic emission responses are silenced during periods intervening sequential stress events. Here we review the information on induced emissions elicited in response to biotic attacks, and argue that biotic stress severity vs. emission rate relationships should follow principally the same dose–response relationships as previously demonstrated for different abiotic stresses. Analysis of several case studies investigating the elicitation of emissions in response to chewing herbivores, aphids, rust fungi, powdery mildew, and Botrytis, suggests that induced emissions do respond to stress severity in dose-dependent manner. Bi-phasic emission kinetics of several induced volatiles have been demonstrated in these experiments, suggesting that next to immediate stress-triggered emissions, biotic stress elicited emissions typically have a secondary induction response, possibly reflecting a systemic response. The dose–response relationships can also vary in dependence on plant genotype, herbivore feeding behavior, and plant pre-stress physiological status. Overall, the evidence suggests that there are quantitative relationships between the biotic stress severity and induced volatile emissions. These relationships constitute an encouraging platform to develop quantitative plant stress response models.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 156

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Defensive function of herbivore-induced plant volatile emissions in nature.

          Herbivore attack is known to increase the emission of volatiles, which attract predators to herbivore-damaged plants in the laboratory and agricultural systems. We quantified volatile emissions from Nicotiana attenuata plants growing in natural populations during attack by three species of leaf-feeding herbivores and mimicked the release of five commonly emitted volatiles individually. Three compounds (cis-3-hexen-1-ol, linalool, and cis-alpha-bergamotene) increased egg predation rates by a generalist predator; linalool and the complete blend decreased lepidopteran oviposition rates. As a consequence, a plant could reduce the number of herbivores by more than 90% by releasing volatiles. These results confirm that indirect defenses can operate in nature.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: found
            Is Open Access

            LEA (Late Embryogenesis Abundant) proteins and their encoding genes in Arabidopsis thaliana

            Background LEA (late embryogenesis abundant) proteins have first been described about 25 years ago as accumulating late in plant seed development. They were later found in vegetative plant tissues following environmental stress and also in desiccation tolerant bacteria and invertebrates. Although they are widely assumed to play crucial roles in cellular dehydration tolerance, their physiological and biochemical functions are largely unknown. Results We present a genome-wide analysis of LEA proteins and their encoding genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. We identified 51 LEA protein encoding genes in the Arabidopsis genome that could be classified into nine distinct groups. Expression studies were performed on all genes at different developmental stages, in different plant organs and under different stress and hormone treatments using quantitative RT-PCR. We found evidence of expression for all 51 genes. There was only little overlap between genes expressed in vegetative tissues and in seeds and expression levels were generally higher in seeds. Most genes encoding LEA proteins had abscisic acid response (ABRE) and/or low temperature response (LTRE) elements in their promoters and many genes containing the respective promoter elements were induced by abscisic acid, cold or drought. We also found that 33% of all Arabidopsis LEA protein encoding genes are arranged in tandem repeats and that 43% are part of homeologous pairs. The majority of LEA proteins were predicted to be highly hydrophilic and natively unstructured, but some were predicted to be folded. Conclusion The analyses indicate a wide range of sequence diversity, intracellular localizations, and expression patterns. The high fraction of retained duplicate genes and the inferred functional diversification indicate that they confer an evolutionary advantage for an organism under varying stressful environmental conditions. This comprehensive analysis will be an important starting point for future efforts to elucidate the functional role of these enigmatic proteins.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              The lipoxygenase pathway.

              Lipid peroxidation is common to all biological systems, both appearing in developmentally and environmentally regulated processes of plants. The hydroperoxy polyunsaturated fatty acids, synthesized by the action of various highly specialized forms of lipoxygenases, are substrates of at least seven different enzyme families. Signaling compounds such as jasmonates, antimicrobial and antifungal compounds such as leaf aldehydes or divinyl ethers, and a plant-specific blend of volatiles including leaf alcohols are among the numerous products. Cloning of many lipoxygenases and other key enzymes within the lipoxygenase pathway, as well as analyses by reverse genetic and metabolic profiling, revealed new reactions and the first hints of enzyme mechanisms, multiple functions, and regulation. These aspects are reviewed with respect to activation of this pathway as an initial step in the interaction of plants with pathogens, insects, or abiotic stress and at distinct stages of development.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Front Plant Sci
                Front Plant Sci
                Front. Plant Sci.
                Frontiers in Plant Science
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-462X
                23 July 2013
                2013
                : 4
                Affiliations
                1Estonian University of Life Sciences Tartu, Estonia
                2Institute of Technical and Natural Sciences Research-Development, Aurel Vlaicu University Arad, Romania
                Author notes

                Edited by: Mary Beth Mudgett, Stanford University, USA

                Reviewed by: Ted Turlings, University of Neuchâtel, Switzerland; Violeta Velikova, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Bulgaria

                *Correspondence: Ülo Niinemets, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, 51014 Tartu, Estonia e-mail: ylo.niinemets@ 123456emu.ee

                This article was submitted to Frontiers in Plant-Microbe Interaction, a specialty of Frontiers in Plant Science.

                Article
                10.3389/fpls.2013.00262
                3719043
                23888161
                Copyright © Niinemets, Kännaste and Copolovici.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in other forums, provided the original authors and source are credited and subject to any copyright notices concerning any third-party graphics etc.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 186, Pages: 15, Words: 0
                Categories
                Plant Science
                Hypothesis & Theory Article

                Comments

                Comment on this article