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      A pilot study of coupled plasma filtration with adsorption in septic shock.

      Critical Care Medicine

      biosynthesis, Adsorption, Adult, Cross-Over Studies, Hemodynamics, Hemofiltration, methods, Humans, Interleukin-10, APACHE, blood, Prospective Studies, Renal Dialysis, Shock, Septic, classification, metabolism, therapy, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha

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          Abstract

          To test the hypothesis that nonselective plasma adsorption by a hydrophobic resin (coupled plasmafiltration and adsorption) could improve hemodynamics and restore leukocyte responsiveness in patients with septic shock. Prospective, pilot, crossover clinical trial. General intensive care unit in a teaching hospital. Ten patients with hyperdynamic septic shock. Patients were randomly allocated to 10 hrs of either coupled plasma filtration adsorption plus hemodialysis (treatment A) or continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (treatment B) in random order. We measured the change in mean arterial pressure, norepinephrine requirements, and leukocyte tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production (both spontaneous and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated) after 10 hrs of each treatment. We also tested TNF-alpha production from normal human adherent monocytes incubated with patients' plasma obtained before and after the resin, both with or without incubation with an anti-interleukin-10 monoclonal antibody. Mean arterial pressure increased after 10 hr by 11.8 mm Hg with treatment A and by 5.5 mm Hg with treatment B (p =.001). There was an average decrease of norepinephrine requirement of 0.08 microg/kg/min with treatment A and 0.0049 microg/kg/min with treatment B (p =.003). All patients but one survived. Spontaneous and lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha production from patients' whole blood increased over time with treatment A. This increase was more marked in blood drawn after the device (plasmafiltrate-sorbent plus hemodialyzer) (p =.009). Preresin plasma suppressed lipopolysaccharide-stimulated production of TNF-alpha by 1 x 10(6)cultured adherent monocytes from healthy donors. This suppressive effect was significantly reduced after passage of plasma through the resin (p =.019) and after incubation with anti-interleukin-10 monoclonal antibodies (p =.028). In patients with septic shock, coupled plasmafiltration-adsorption combined with hemodialysis was associated with improved hemodynamics compared with continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration. This result might be related to its ability to restore leukocyte responsiveness to lipopolysaccharide. These findings suggest a potential role for blood purification in the treatment of septic shock.

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          Most cited references 15

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          Mechanism of endotoxin desensitization: involvement of interleukin 10 and transforming growth factor beta

          Tolerance of monocytes/macrophages to endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) can be induced both in vivo and in vitro by LPS itself. Exposure to LPS, even at a very low dose, induces a downregulation of cytokine response to a second high dose LPS challenge. To learn more about the unknown mechanisms of this phenomenon, we studied the role of antiinflammatory cytokines in this process. Preculture of human peripheral blood monocytes for 24 hours with low concentrations of LPS induced hyporesponsiveness to high-dose LPS rechallenge with respect to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha and interleukin (IL) 10 but not IL- 1RA production. These results suggest that LPS tolerance reflects a functional switch of monocytes rather than a general LPS hyporesponsiveness. IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF) beta 1 showed additive effects in replacing LPS for induction of LPS hyporesponsiveness in vitro. Additionally, neutralizing anti-IL-10 and anti-TGF-beta monoclonal antibodies prevented induction of LPS tolerance. In vitro induced LPS tolerance looks like the ex vivo LPS hyporesponsiveness of monocytes from septic patients with fatal outcome: downregulation of LPS-induced TNF-alpha and IL-10 production but not of IL-1RA secretion. LPS hyporesponsiveness in septic patients was preceded by expression of IL-10 at both the mRNA and protein level. In summary, our data suggests that IL-10 and TGF-beta mediate the phenomenon of LPS tolerance in vitro and perhaps in vivo (septic patients), too.
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            Septic shock: pathogenesis

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              Decreased response to recall antigens is associated with depressed costimulatory receptor expression in septic critically ill patients.

              Anti-inflammatory substances are released during septic shock that modulate monocyte function. Decreased monocyte responsiveness to bacterial toxins and decreased expression of human-leukocyte-associated antigen-DR (HLA-DR) have been reported during septic shock and critical illness. Impaired antigen presentation has been inferred from these observations but has not been demonstrated. We assessed antigen presentation and costimulatory molecule expression in 12 age-matched control subjects, 10 noninfected critically ill patients (CINS), and 17 critically ill patients with sepsis (CIS). Antigen presentation was assessed by using in vitro lymphocyte 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation in response to tetanus toxoid. The expression of HLA-DR and the costimulatory molecules CD28, CD86, and CTLA-4 was assessed by flow cytometry. Serum interleukin-10 (IL-10) was also measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum IL-10 levels were significantly elevated in CIS patients (91 +/- 38 pg/mL) as compared with levels in control subjects (5 +/- 4 pg/mL)(P < .05). Lymphocyte BrdU incorporation increased by 710% +/- 243% in control subjects but by only 144% +/- 62% in CIS patients and 76% +/- 31% in CINS patients (P < .01 vs control). Monocyte HLA-DR expression, monocyte CD86 expression, and lymphocyte CD28 expression were significantly decreased in CIS patients (P < .01) as compared with control subjects. Conversely, lymphocyte CTLA-4 expression was significantly increased in CIS patients (P < .05 vs control). Monocyte CD86 expression was also significantly decreased in CINS patients as compared with control subjects. These data indicate that antigen presentation is decreased in critically ill patients with sepsis. This appears in part related to decreased expression of HLA-DR and the costimulatory molecules CD86 and CD28. Increased expression of the negative signal receptor CTLA-4 may also impair antigen presentation in patients with sepsis.
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                12072677

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