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      Long-Term Effects of Atrial Synchronous Ventricular Pacing on Systolic and Diastolic Ventricular Function in Patients with Normal Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction

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          Abstract

          Background: Atrial synchronous right ventricular pacing (VP) may compromise ventricular function in patients undergoing pacemaker implantation for atrioventricular block. We assessed the usefulness of tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) and color M-mode echocardiography in evaluating patients with VP, and examined the long-term effects of VP on ventricular function by echocardiographic indices and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) measurements. Methods: We studied 60 clinically stable elderly dual-chamber pacemaker recipients (mean age: 74 ± 9 years) who had normal left ventricular (LV) systolic function and on the long term the same cardiac rhythm, either intrinsic normal ventricular activation (IA) (n = 20), or VP (n = 40). Results: Paced patients, compared to patients with IA, had decreased stroke volume (p < 0.05) and a more depressed relaxation pattern, as indicated by decreased peak early mitral velocity (E)/peak atrial contraction velocity ratio and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI)-early transmitral diastolic velocity (Ea) measures (p < 0.05). Both groups presented similar BNP levels and LV filling pressures, as assessed by E/Ea and E/early diastolic transmitral flow propagation velocity. In VP patients, age (β = 0.31), Ea (β = –0.28) and E/Ea (β = 0.32) emerged as independent predictors of BNP levels. Conclusions: VP is associated with reduced LV systolic function and signs of impaired relaxation. Elevated BNP levels in elderly VP patients with normal ejection fraction may be predicted by TDI signs of LV diastolic dysfunction.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular hypertrophy: comparison to necropsy findings.

          To determine the accuracy of echocardiographic left ventricular (LV) dimension and mass measurements for detection and quantification of LV hypertrophy, results of blindly read antemortem echocardiograms were compared with LV mass measurements made at necropsy in 55 patients. LV mass was calculated using M-mode LV measurements by Penn and American Society of Echocardiography (ASE) conventions and cube function and volume correction formulas in 52 patients. Penn-cube LV mass correlated closely with necropsy LV mass (r = 0.92, p less than 0.001) and overestimated it by only 6%; sensitivity in 18 patients with LV hypertrophy (necropsy LV mass more than 215 g) was 100% (18 of 18 patients) and specificity was 86% (29 of 34 patients). ASE-cube LV mass correlated similarly to necropsy LV mass (r = 0.90, p less than 0.001), but systematically overestimated it (by a mean of 25%); the overestimation could be corrected by the equation: LV mass = 0.80 (ASE-cube LV mass) + 0.6 g. Use of ASE measurements in the volume correction formula systematically underestimated necropsy LV mass (by a mean of 30%). In a subset of 9 patients, 3 of whom had technically inadequate M-mode echocardiograms, 2-dimensional echocardiographic (echo) LV mass by 2 methods was also significantly related to necropsy LV mass (r = 0.68, p less than 0.05 and r = 0.82, p less than 0.01). Among other indexes of LV anatomy, only measurement of myocardial cross-sectional area was acceptably accurate for quantitation of LV mass (r = 0.80, p less than 0.001) or diagnosis of LV hypertrophy (sensitivity = 72%, specificity = 94%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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            B-type natriuretic peptide in cardiovascular disease.

            Natriuretic peptide hormones, a family of vasoactive peptides with many favourable physiological properties, have emerged as important candidates for development of diagnostic tools and therapeutic agents in cardiovascular disease. The rapid incorporation into clinical practice of bioassays to measure natriuretic peptide concentrations, and drugs that augment the biological actions of this system, show the potential for translational research to improve patient care. Here, we focus on the physiology of the natriuretic peptide system, measurement of circulating concentrations of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and the N-terminal fragment of its prohormone (N-terminal BNP) to diagnose heart failure and left ventricular dysfunction, measurement of BNP and N-terminal BNP to assess prognosis in patients with cardiac abnormalities, and use of recombinant human BNP (nesiritide) and vasopeptidase inhibitors to treat heart failure.
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              An index of early left ventricular filling that combined with pulsed Doppler peak E velocity may estimate capillary wedge pressure.

              This study sought to determine the applicability of the combined information obtained from transmitral Doppler flow and color M-mode Doppler flow propagation velocities for estimating pulmonary capillary wedge pressure. Although Doppler-derived measurements of left ventricular (LV) filling have been applied to determine left atrial pressure, their accuracy has been limited by the variable effect of ventricular relaxation in these indexes. Recently, flow propagation velocity measured by color M-mode Doppler echocardiography has been suggested as an index of ventricular relaxation. We studied 45 patients admitted to the intensive care unit who underwent invasive hemodynamic monitoring. We measured peak early (E) and late (A) transmitral Doppler velocities, E/A ratio and flow propagation velocity (vp) and compared them by linear regression with pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (pw). We found a modest positive correlation between pw and E (r = 0.62, p < 0.001) and the E/A ratio (r = 0.52, p < 0.001) and a negative correlation between pw and vp (r = -0.34, p = 0.02). By stepwise linear regression, only E and vp were statistically significant predictors of pw. However, the E/vp ratio provided the best estimate of pw (r = 0.80, p < 0.001; pw = 5.27 x [E/vp] + 4.6, SEE 3.1 mm Hg). The ratio of component velocity (E) over the color M-mode propagation velocity during early LV filling, by correcting for the effect of LV relaxation, provides a better estimate of pw than standard measurements of transmitral Doppler flow.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2007
                November 2007
                08 February 2007
                : 108
                : 4
                : 290-296
                Affiliations
                Department of Cardiology, Patras University Hospital, Patras, Greece
                Article
                99098 Cardiology 2007;108:290–296
                10.1159/000099098
                17284907
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 3, References: 32, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Original Research

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