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      Nimbolide ameliorates pancreatic inflammation and apoptosis by modulating NF-κB/SIRT1 and apoptosis signaling in acute pancreatitis model

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      International Immunopharmacology
      Elsevier BV

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          Acute pancreatitis: bench to the bedside.

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            Pathophysiology of Acute Pancreatitis

            Acute pancreatitis is a common clinical condition. It is a disease of variable severity in which some patients experience mild, self-limited attacks while others manifest a severe, highly morbid, and frequently lethal attack. The exact mechanisms by which diverse etiological factors induce an attack are still unclear. It is generally believed that the earliest events in acute pancreatitis occur within acinar cells. Acinar cell injury early in acute pancreatitis leads to a local inflammatory reaction. If this inflammatory reaction is marked, it leads to a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). An excessive SIRS leads to distant organ damage and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS).MODS associated with acute pancreatitis is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in this condition. Recent studies have established the role played by inflammatory mediators in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis and the resultant MODS. At the same time, recent research has demonstrated the importance of acinar cell death in the form of apoptosis and necrosis as a determinant of pancreatitis severity. In this review, we will discuss about our current understanding of the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis.
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              Measurement of Cutaneous Inflammation: Estimation of Neutrophil Content with an Enzyme Marker

              We examined the hypothesis that myeloperoxidase (MPO), a plentiful constituent of neutrophils, might serve as a marker for tissue neutrophil content. To completely extract MPO from either neutrophils or skin, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HTAB) was used to solubilize the enzyme. With this detergent treatment, 97.8 +/- 0.2% of total recoverable MPO was extracted from neutrophils with a single HTAB treatment; 93.1 +/- 1.0% was solubilized with a single treatment of skin. Neutrophil MPO was directly related to neutrophil number; with the dianisidine-H2O2 assay as few as 10(4) neutrophils could be detected. The background level of MPO within uninflamed tissue was 0.385 +/- 0.018 units per gram of tissue, equivalent to only 7.64 +/- 0.36 X 10(5) neutrophils. In experimental staphylococcal infection, skin specimens contained 34.8 +/- 3.8 units MPO per gram, equivalent to 8.55 +/- 0.93 X 10(7) neutrophils. These studies demonstrate that MPO can be used as a marker for skin neutrophil content: it is recoverable from skin in soluble form, and is directly related to neutrophil number. Further, normal skin possesses a low background of MPO compared to that of inflamed skin.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                International Immunopharmacology
                International Immunopharmacology
                Elsevier BV
                15675769
                January 2021
                January 2021
                : 90
                : 107246
                Article
                10.1016/j.intimp.2020.107246
                5ad123bb-23c2-42fa-8837-c9c762c46f5c
                © 2021

                https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/


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