Objective To investigate the effects of different nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs combined with platelet-rich plasma on inflammatory factor levels in patients with osteoarthritis. Methods The clinic data of 120 patients with osteoarthritis who were treated in our hospital (June 2019-June 2021) were retrospectively reviewed. All the patients were given platelet-rich plasma. According to the different nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs the patients received, they were equalized into diclofenac sodium group, celecoxib group, and iguratimod group, with 40 cases in each group. After treatment, the patients' clinical efficacy was compared and analyzed. Results After treatment, the pain degrees of the patients in the three groups were gradually reduced. After 4 weeks and 8 weeks of treatment, the statistical differences in the scores of Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) were found among the three groups. Specifically, compared with the other two groups, the iguratimod group had remarkably lower VAS scores (P 0.05). Conclusion The combination of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with platelet-rich plasma can further reduce the inflammatory reactions of the patients with osteoarthritis and improve their knee joint function. Significantly, the iguratimod, with high safety, has observably better effects on inhibiting inflammatory factors and improving knee joint function compared with diclofenac sodium and celecoxib.