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      Naldemedine: A New Option for OIBD

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          Opioid-induced bowel dysfunction (OIBD) is a common complication in long-term opioid users and abusers. It is a burdensome condition, which significantly limits quality of life and is associated with increasing health costs. OIBD affects up to 60% of patients with chronic non-cancer pain and over 80% of patients suffering from cancer pain and is one of the conditions of the most common symptoms associated with opioid maintenance. Given the continued use of opioids for chronic pain management in appropriate patients, OIBD is likely to persist in clinical practice in the coming years. We will herein review its underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and the available treatments. In the last years, pharmaceutical research has focused on the opportunity of targeting peripheral mu-opioid receptors without affecting their analgesic activity in the central nervous system, and several peripherally acting mu-opioid receptors antagonists (PAMORAs) drugs have been approved. We will mainly focus on naldemedine, discussing its pharmacological properties, its clinical efficacy and side effects. Head-to-head comparisons between naldemedine and the other PAMORAs are not available yet, but some considerations will be discussed based on the pharmacological and clinical data. As a whole, the available data suggest that naldemedine is a valid treatment option for OIBD, as it is a well-tolerated drug that alleviates constipation without affecting analgesia or causing symptoms of opioid withdrawal.

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          Most cited references 47

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          Opioid receptors in the gastrointestinal tract.

           Peter Holzer (2009)
          Opium is arguably one of the oldest herbal medicines, being used as analgesic, sedative and antidiarrheal drug for thousands of years. These effects mirror the actions of the endogenous opioid system and are mediated by the principal mu-, kappa- and delta-opioid receptors. In the gut, met-enkephalin, leu-enkephalin, beta-endorphin and dynorphin occur in both neurons and endocrine cells. When released, opioid peptides activate opioid receptors on the enteric circuitry controlling motility and secretion. As a result, inhibition of gastric emptying, increase in sphincter tone, induction of stationary motor patterns and blockade of peristalsis ensue. Together with inhibition of ion and fluid secretion, these effects cause constipation, one of the most frequent and troublesome adverse reactions of opioid analgesic therapy. Although laxatives are most frequently used to ameliorate opioid-induced bowel dysfunction, their efficacy is unsatisfactory. Specific antagonism of peripheral opioid receptors is a more rational approach. This goal is addressed by the use of opioid receptor antagonists with limited absorption such as oral prolonged-release naloxone and opioid receptor antagonists that do not penetrate the blood-brain barrier such as methylnaltrexone and alvimopan. Preliminary evidence indicates that peripherally restricted opioid receptor antagonists may act as prokinetic drugs in their own right.
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            Bowel disorders

             F Mearin,  BE LACY,  L. CHANG (2016)
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              Randomised clinical trial: the long-term safety and tolerability of naloxegol in patients with pain and opioid-induced constipation.

              Opioid-induced constipation (OIC) is a common adverse effect of opioid therapy.

                Author and article information

                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                26 May 2020
                : 13
                : 1209-1222
                [1 ]Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Sapienza University of Rome, Polo Pontino , Latina, Italy
                [2 ]NEMA Research Inc ., Naples, FL, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Flaminia Coluzzi Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Sapienza University of Rome, Polo Pontino , Corso della Repubblica 79, Latina04100, ItalyTel +39 0773 6553334 Email flaminia.coluzzi@uniroma1.it
                © 2020 Coluzzi et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 6, References: 50, Pages: 14
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