During a taxonomic review of Sphagnaceae of Brazil, I found 5 collections in herbaria
of Sphagnum squarrosum, an interesting species because of its typically robust form
with strongly squarrose branch leaves that give this species a “spiky” look. These
are the first records of this species from Brazil and the first of the subgenus Squarrosa
from South America. These 5 records represent the southernmost known populations of
this species in the Southern Hemisphere. A brief description, a key to the species
of subgenus Squarrosa, and illustrations are given.