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      Prevalence and Pattern of Road Traffic Accidents among Commercial Motorcyclists in the Central Tongu District, Ghana

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          The World Health Organisation estimates that 1.35 million people die as a result of road traffic crashes. Motorcycles as a means of transport are increasingly becoming the preferred and easiest means of transportation for most people in developing countries despite the associated risk. This study determined the prevalence and pattern of motorcycle crashes in Adidome among commercial motorcyclists.


          A descriptive, cross-sectional study design was used as 114 commercial motorcyclists were recruited to respond to a pretested research questionnaire in the Adidome district of the Volta Region. Data were analyzed using SPSS, version 22.0. Data were presented as simple descriptive statistics. A chi-square relationship was determined using the demographic variables, and the history of accident at a 95% confidence interval with 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.


          The prevalence of road traffic crashes at Adidome was 64.0%. Motorcyclists (74.0%) were reported to have been involved in crashes in the past one year prior to the study. Motorcyclists attributed the last accident to excessive speeding (31.5%) and bad roads (23.3%), this accident as a result of colliding with another motorcycle (50.7%), and slippery surfaces (24.7%). The majority (63.0%) of the respondents had an accident once. The consumption of alcohol was associated with the occurrence of an accident as 34.2% occurred among cyclists who drank alcohol, compared with 29.8% who did not ( p < 0.05).


          There should be strict implementation of current road traffic regulations of Ghana by the MTTD of the Ghana Police Service, and penalties should be awarded against anybody caught riding a motorcycle under the influence of alcohol. Helmet and other protective devices must be made compulsory for motorcycle riders to prevent injuries, especially head injuries, if an accident occurs.

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          Motorcycle injuries as an emerging public health problem in Mwanza City, north-western Tanzania.

          Motorcycle injuries constitute a major but neglected emerging public health problem in developing countries and are a common cause of road traffic injuries. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence, injury pattern and treatment outcome of motorcycle injuries among patients presenting to Bugando Medical Centre in Mwanza, Tanzania, between March 2009 and February 2010. Data was collected using a pre-tested, coded questionnaire. A total of 384 motorcycle injury patients were studied constituting 37.2% of all road traffic injuries. Over two-thirds (69.5%) of the patients were males (Male: Female ratio = 2.3:1). The mean age of the patients was 25.7 years (range: 4-87 years). The majority of patients were businessmen and students accounting for 68.8% and 42.2%, respectively. Motorcyclists accounted for the majority of motorcycle injury patients (212, 55.2%), followed by passengers (130. 33.9%) and pedestrians (42, 10.9%). Helmet use was recorded in 87 patients (22.7%). Most patients (352; 91.7%) sustained blunt injuries. Musculoskeletal (extremities) and head injuries were the most common body region injured affecting 234 (60.9%) and 212 (55.2%) patients, respectively. The majority of patients (244; 63.5%) were treated surgically. Wound debridement was the most common (86.9%) procedure performed. The overall mean length of hospital stay (LOS) was 19.23 days (range= 1-120 days). The LOS for non-survivors was 5.6 days (range= 1- 25 days). Patients with major trauma (ISS > 16), severe head injury (GCS 3-8) and those with long bone fractures stayed longer in the hospital and this was significant (P-value 16), admission systolic blood pressure <90mmHg, severe head injury (GCS <9), need for intensive care unit admission and need for ventilatory support significantly influenced mortality (P-value < 0.001). Motorcycle injuries constitute a major but neglected emerging public health problem in Mwanza City and continue to be one of the most common cause or agent of road traffic injuries. The morbidity and mortality can be mitigated by encouraging use of protective gear like helmets and encouraging enforcement of traffic laws.
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            Concurrent mobile (cellular) phone use and driving performance: task demand characteristics and compensatory processes

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              Crash characteristics and patterns of injury among hospitalized motorised two-wheeled vehicle users in urban India

              Background Traffic crashes and consequent injuries represent a growing public health concern in India, particularly in light of increasing motorization. Motorised two-wheeled vehicles (MTV) constitute a large portion of the vehicle fleet in India. We report the crash characteristics and injury patterns among a cohort of MTV riders and pillions presenting to hospital post-crash. Methods Consecutive MTV riders and pillions, whether alive or dead, injured in a road traffic crash presenting to the emergency departments of two government hospitals and three branches of a private hospital in urban Hyderabad, India, were recruited to this study. Results 378 MTV users were enrolled to the study of whom 333 (88.1%) were male, 252 (66.7%) were riders and median age was 31.3 years. A total of 223 (59%) MTV users were injured in multi-vehicle crashes while one-third had a frontal impact. The majority (77%) were assessed as having a Glasgow coma score (GCS) of 13–15, 12% a GCS of 9–12 and 11% a GCS of 3–8. No difference was seen in the severity distribution of injuries based on GCS among riders and pillions. Open wounds and superficial injuries to the head (69.3%) and upper extremity (27%) and lower extremity (24%) were the most common injuries. 43 (11%) sustained an intracranial injury, including 12 (28%) with associated fracture of the bones of the head. There were few differences in types of injuries sustained by riders and pillions though riders had a significantly lower risk of crush injuries of the lower extremity than pillions (relative risk, RR 0.25, 95% CI 0.08–0.81) and female pillions were at a significantly lower risk of sustaining fractures of the lower extremity than male pillions (RR 0.30, 95% CI 0.09 – 0.94). Overall, 42 (11%) MTV users died, of which 42.8% died before reaching the hospital. Only 74 (19.6%) MTV users had worn a helmet correctly and failure to wear a helmet was associated with a five times greater risk of intracranial injury (RR 4.99, 95% CI 1.23–20.1). Of the 19 pre-hospital deaths, 16 (84%) had not worn a helmet. Conclusion Head injuries accounted for the major proportion of injuries sustained in MTV users. Non-helmet use was associated with increased risk of serious head injuries. The data presented on the nature and severity of injuries sustained by MTV users can assist with planning to deal with these consequences as well as prevention of these injuries given the high use of MTV in India.

                Author and article information

                The Scientific World Journal
                1 June 2020
                : 2020
                1Department of Public Health Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, University of Health and Allied Sciences, Ho, Volta Region, Ghana
                2Tehran University of Medical Sciences, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran, Iran
                3Nurses' and Midwives' Training College, Tamale, Northern Region, Ghana
                4Department of Public Health, School of Allied Sciences, University for Development Studies, Tamale, Northern Region, Ghana
                5Department of Nursing, West End University College, Accra, Ghana
                6Department of Surgery, Tamale Teaching Hospital, Tamale, Northern Region, Ghana
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Claudio Cameselle

                Copyright © 2020 Kennedy Diema Konlan et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Research Article



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