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Toll-like receptor 4-dependent contribution of the immune system to anticancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

Nature medicine

Toll-Like Receptor 4, therapeutic use, Pyridines, drug therapy, Osteosarcoma, Organoplatinum Compounds, radiotherapy, Neoplasms, Mice, Inbred BALB C, Mice, Humans, Disease Models, Animal, Colonic Neoplasms, Cell Line, Tumor, Bone Neoplasms, Antineoplastic Agents, Animals, immunology

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      Abstract

      Conventional cancer treatments rely on radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Such treatments supposedly mediate their effects via the direct elimination of tumor cells. Here we show that the success of some protocols for anticancer therapy depends on innate and adaptive antitumor immune responses. We describe in both mice and humans a previously unrecognized pathway for the activation of tumor antigen-specific T-cell immunity that involves secretion of the high-mobility-group box 1 (HMGB1) alarmin protein by dying tumor cells and the action of HMGB1 on Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expressed by dendritic cells (DCs). During chemotherapy or radiotherapy, DCs require signaling through TLR4 and its adaptor MyD88 for efficient processing and cross-presentation of antigen from dying tumor cells. Patients with breast cancer who carry a TLR4 loss-of-function allele relapse more quickly after radiotherapy and chemotherapy than those carrying the normal TLR4 allele. These results delineate a clinically relevant immunoadjuvant pathway triggered by tumor cell death.

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      Most cited references 46

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      Release of chromatin protein HMGB1 by necrotic cells triggers inflammation.

      High mobility group 1 (HMGB1) protein is both a nuclear factor and a secreted protein. In the cell nucleus it acts as an architectural chromatin-binding factor that bends DNA and promotes protein assembly on specific DNA targets. Outside the cell, it binds with high affinity to RAGE (the receptor for advanced glycation end products) and is a potent mediator of inflammation. HMGB1 is secreted by activated monocytes and macrophages, and is passively released by necrotic or damaged cells. Here we report that Hmgb1(-/-) necrotic cells have a greatly reduced ability to promote inflammation, which proves that the release of HMGB1 can signal the demise of a cell to its neighbours. Apoptotic cells do not release HMGB1 even after undergoing secondary necrosis and partial autolysis, and thus fail to promote inflammation even if not cleared promptly by phagocytic cells. In apoptotic cells, HMGB1 is bound firmly to chromatin because of generalized underacetylation of histone and is released in the extracellular medium (promoting inflammation) if chromatin deacetylation is prevented. Thus, cells undergoing apoptosis are programmed to withhold the signal that is broadcast by cells that have been damaged or killed by trauma.
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        Toll-like receptors and innate immunity.

         R Medzhitov (2001)
        Toll-like receptors have a crucial role in the detection of microbial infection in mammals and insects. In mammals, these receptors have evolved to recognize conserved products unique to microbial metabolism. This specificity allows the Toll proteins to detect the presence of infection and to induce activation of inflammatory and antimicrobial innate immune responses. Recognition of microbial products by Toll-like receptors expressed on dendritic cells triggers functional maturation of dendritic cells and leads to initiation of antigen-specific adaptive immune responses.
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          An advanced culture method for generating large quantities of highly pure dendritic cells from mouse bone marrow.

          As dendritic cells (DC) are rare populations in all organs, their generation from hematopoietic precursors in large quantities has proven critical to study their biology. From murine bone marrow about 5 x 10(6) cells at 70% purity are obtained per mouse after 8 days of culture with GM-CSF. We have improved this standard method and routinely achieve a 50-fold higher yield, i.e., 1-3 x 10(8) immature and mature DC per mouse at 90-95% purity. The major modifications were: (i) the avoidance of any active depletion of bone marrow cell subpopulations to circumvent loss of precursors, (ii) a lower plating density of bone marrow cells, (iii) a prolonged culture period of 10-12 days, (iv) the reduction of the GM-CSF dose from day 8 or 10 onwards to reduce granulocyte contaminations. The final non-adherent population at day 10-12 constitutes a mixture of immature and mature DC. Further maturation of DC could be induced by high doses of LPS or TNF-alpha for the last 24 h, where 50-70% of the non-adherent fraction represented mature DC with high levels of NLDC-145, CD86 and CD40. This method allows by simple means the generation of high numbers of murine DC with very low B cell or granulocyte contaminations. It will be valuable to study DC biology notably at the molecular level.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            17704786
            10.1038/nm1622

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