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      Glaucoma surgery and induced astigmatism: a systematic review

      ,

      Eye and Vision

      BioMed Central

      Filtration surgery, Trabeculectomy, Astigmatism, Refractive outcome

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          Abstract

          Background

          The refractive outcomes of glaucoma surgeries, particularly their effect on astigmatism, are incompletely understood.

          Main body

          Trabeculectomy is associated with a considerable amount of with-the-rule astigmatic change in the immediate postoperative period. This is followed by a gradual against-the-rule shift. These changes are altered with the use of mitomycin C (MMC). Non-penetrating surgery such as deep sclerectomy is also associated with a similar or smaller degree of induced astigmatism. Minimally invasive glaucoma surgery appears to be astigmatically neutral. There is no clear evidence regarding refractive outcomes of glaucoma drainage device surgery.

          Conclusions

          Induced astigmatism may account for a reduction in unaided visual acuity in the early postoperative period following a successful trabeculectomy. These changes appear to stabilise at 3 months, and it would be prudent to defer the prescription of new glasses until this time. If sequential cataract surgery is to be performed, toric intraocular lenses can be a useful option for astigmatic correction.

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          Most cited references 27

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          Global data on visual impairment in the year 2002.

          This paper presents estimates of the prevalence of visual impairment and its causes in 2002, based on the best available evidence derived from recent studies. Estimates were determined from data on low vision and blindness as defined in the International statistical classification of diseases, injuries and causes of death, 10th revision. The number of people with visual impairment worldwide in 2002 was in excess of 161 million, of whom about 37 million were blind. The burden of visual impairment is not distributed uniformly throughout the world: the least developed regions carry the largest share. Visual impairment is also unequally distributed across age groups, being largely confined to adults 50 years of age and older. A distribution imbalance is also found with regard to gender throughout the world: females have a significantly higher risk of having visual impairment than males. Notwithstanding the progress in surgical intervention that has been made in many countries over the last few decades, cataract remains the leading cause of visual impairment in all regions of the world, except in the most developed countries. Other major causes of visual impairment are, in order of importance, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and trachoma.
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            2002 survey of the American Glaucoma Society: practice preferences for glaucoma surgery and antifibrotic use.

            To determine the preference of members of the American Glaucoma Society for the use of antifibrotic agents (mitomycin C or 5-fluorouracil or both) and glaucoma drainage devices in ten clinical settings. Voluntary written survey of the American Glaucoma Society. American Glaucoma Society (AGS) members continue to report preference for mitomycin C use in ten clinical settings. The percent usage for glaucoma drainage devices has increased in poor prognosis scenarios including the following: neovascular glaucoma, previous failed trabeculectomy, previous ECCE/ICCE, previous PKP, previous scleral buckling surgery, and uveitic glaucoma. However, trabeculectomy and MMC continue to be more likely employed for surgical management. Despite the long-term complications of bleb-related infections, no statistically significant shift in preference away from MMC use or reduction in the concentration of drug delivery was observed since the 1996 survey.
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              Femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery.

              Femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery provides surgeons an exciting new option to potentially improve patient outcomes and safety. Over the past 2 years, 4 unique laser platforms have been introduced into the marketplace. The introduction of this new technology has been accompanied by a host of new clinical, logistical, and financial challenges for surgeons. This article describes the evolution of femtosecond laser technology for use in cataract surgery. It reviews the available laser platforms and discusses the necessary modifications in cataract surgery technique and the logistics of incorporating a femtosecond laser into one's practice.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                +61 3 9929 8666 , Helen.Chan@eyeandear.org.au
                Journal
                Eye Vis (Lond)
                Eye Vis (Lond)
                Eye and Vision
                BioMed Central (London )
                2326-0254
                17 November 2017
                17 November 2017
                2017
                : 4
                Affiliations
                GRID grid.410670.4, Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, ; 32 Gisborne St, East Melbourne, VIC 3002 Australia
                Article
                90
                10.1186/s40662-017-0090-x
                5691392
                © The Author(s). 2017

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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                © The Author(s) 2017

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