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      Salud percibida y salud real: prevalencia en las personas mayores de 60 años Translated title: Perceived health and real health: prevalence among persons aged 60 and older Translated title: Saúde percebida e saúde real: prevalência nas pessoas idosas de 60 anos

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          Abstract

          ObjetivoAnalizar el estado de salud de la población mayor de 60 años y la relación que existe entre la autopercepción de la salud que tienen las personas mayores y su salud real; se valoró la mediación en esta relación de aspectos sociodemográficos como la edad y el género.MétodoDiseño descriptivo, transversal, de prevalencia. Localización: 15 centros de día y 10 residencias de la provincia de Almería (España). Participantes: 1,220 personas mayores de 60 años (M = 70.9; DT = 7.9), de los cuales el 48.3% son hombres y el 51.7% mujeres.MedicionesSe analizó el género, la edad, el estado civil, la presencia o no de diferentes enfermedades y problemas de salud, y el nivel de salud percibido.ResultadosLos problemas de salud relacionados con los huesos y articulaciones son los más frecuentes. Existen diferencias significativas (p = 0.000) en la percepción de la salud entre ambos géneros; los hombres tienen una mejor percepción de su salud. Hay una relación negativa y significativa (p < 0.001) entre la edad y la percepción de la salud. Tanto el número de enfermedades (r2 = 0.251) como la edad (r2 = 0.010) y el género (r2 = 0.002) forman parte del modelo explicativo de la percepción de salud.ConclusionesEl número de enfermedades, la edad y el género son variables que explican una cuarta parte de la variable subjetiva salud percibida, por tanto ofrecen indicios de poder ser utilizadas en la planificación de las políticas sanitarias.

          Translated abstract

          ObjectiveTo analyze the health of the population aged 60 and older, and the relationship between their perception of their health and their real condition. The relationship with social-demographic issues such as gender was also assessed.MethodDescriptive, transversal and prevalence study of 15 Day and 10 Residential Centers in the province of Almería (Spain), with 1,220 persons aged 60 and older (M = 70.9, SD = 7.9), 48.3% male and 51.7% female.MeasurementsGender, age, civil status, and the presence of pathologies and health problems, as well as the perceived health level were all assessed.ResultsHealth problems related to bones and articulations were the most reported. There are significant differences (P=0.000) in the perception of health between both genders; males have a better perception of their health. There is a negative and significant relation (P < .001) between age and the perception of health. The number of illnesses (r2 = 0.251), age (r2 = 0.010), and gender (r2 = 0.002) are all part of the explicative model of the perception of health.ConclusionsThe number of illnesses, age, and gender are variables which explain a quarter of the subjective perception of health variable, and thus, they indicate a possible use in the planning of health policies.

          Translated abstract

          ObjetivoAnalisar o estado de saúde da população idosa de 60 anos e, a relação que existe entre a auto percepção da saúde que realizam as pessoas idosas e a sua saúde real. Valorizou-se a intermediação de aspetos sócio demográficos como a idade e o género.MétodoDesenho descritivo, transversal de prevalência. Localização: 15 centros de dia e 10 moradias da província de Almería (na Espanha). Participantes: 1220 pessoas idosas de 60 anos (M = 70.9; DT = 7.9), das quais o 48.3% são homens e o 51.7% são mulheres.MediçõesAnalisou-se o género, a idade, o estado civil, a presença e a não presença de diferentes patologias e problemas de saúde e, o nível de saúde percebido.Resultadosos problemas de saúde relacionados com os ossos e as articulações são os mais frequentes. Existem diferenças significativas (p = 0.000) na percepção de saúde entre ambos os géneros, os homens têm uma melhor percepção da sua saúde. Há uma relação negativa e significativa (p < 0.001) entre a idade e a percepção da saúde. Tanto o número de doenças (r2 = 0.251) como a idade (r2 = 0.010) e o género (r2 = 0.002) formam parte do modelo explicativo da percepção da saúde.ConclusõesO número de doenças, a idade e o género são variáveis que explicam uma quarta parte da variável subjetiva "saúde percebida", portanto, oferecem índicios de poderem ser utilizadas na planificação de políticas sanitárias.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Factores asociados a mal estado de salud percibido o a mala calidad de vida en personas mayores de 65 años

          Fundamento: Hoy en día, en los países desarrollados, llegar a una edad avanzada ha dejado de ser algo excepcional, sin embargo muchas personas no logran envejecer con una buena calidad de vida. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivos, contribuir a un mejor conocimiento de los principales factores que influyen en la calidad de vida y la percepción de la salud de los mayores de 65 años, así como determinar qué ventajas y desventajas presenta cada uno de los tres instrumentos de medida de la salud y la calidad de vida frente a los otros dos instrumentos utilizados. Métodos: A partir de 911 encuestas a personas mayores de 65 años no institucionalizadas, realizadas a domicilio, se hizo un análisis multivariante mediante regresión logística, poniendo en relación los resultados obtenidos en el Perfil de Salud de Nottingham (PSN), el Euroqol y el EAS con las caracterísiticas sociodemográficas, el nivel de recursos económicos, el grado de apoyo sociofamiliar, el estado de salud física y mental y la capacidad funcional. Resultados: Los principales factores que se asocian con la percepción de un mal estado de salud y mala calidad de vida en el Euroqol y el PSN son los trastornos de ansiedad (Odd Ratios entre 1,8(IC:1,2-2,8) para movilidad y 7,9(IC:4,5-13,9) para Perfil ≠11111), trastornos depresivos (OR:1,8(IC:1,3-2,6) para dolor/malestar- 3,3(IC:2,1-5,1) para aislamiento social), falta de ejercicio (OR:1,4 (IC:1-2,1) para ansiedad/depresión -3,9(IC:2,5-6,2) para actividades cotidianas), dependencia para las actividades básicas de la vida diaria (OR:0,5(IC:0,3-0,9) para reacción emocional - 4,8(IC:3-7,6) para actividades cotidianas) y dependencia para las actividades instrumentales de la vida diaria (OR:1,5(IC:1,1-2,1) para Escala Visual Analógicac<70 - 7,1(IC:2,9-17,2) para cuidado personal). Conclusiones: La salud mental y la capacidad funcional son los factores que más influyen en la percepción del estado de salud y la calidad de vida de las personas mayores. Dado que los tres instrumentos utilizados han obtenido resultados semejantes, el Euroqol ofrece ventajas por su brevedad, incluyendo una valoración global y por dimensiones.
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            A comparison of correlates of self-rated health and functional disability of older persons in the Far East: Japan and Korea.

            Self-rated health and physical functioning are recognized as important indicators of health in older persons. Rarely, however, there have been studies done which examine cross-cultural differences in the health of older people using these measures, especially among non-Western countries. The objective of this study was to examine patterns of association of self-rated health and functional disability of Japanese and Korean elderly people living in the community, using nationwide surveys of persons aged 60 years or over. There were striking similarities in the general pattern of associations with covariates. In the multivariate analysis, age, work status, comorbidity, depressive symptoms, life satisfaction, hospitalization, and functional disability were strongly associated with self-rated health in both populations. For functional disability, older age, female, low social contact, depressive symptoms, poor life satisfaction, and poor self-rated health were found to be significantly associated. Some differences in the structure of associations with self-rated health, however, were noted. Women tended to assess their health more favorably than men in Korea, but in the Japanese elderly gender differences disappeared when other variables were taken into account. Health-related variables tended to be more closely associated with functional disability in the Japanese sample. An overall similarity, however, in the pattern of associations of these measures supports their utility in assessing and comparing the health of older populations in this region.
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              Changes in health, functional performance and activity predict changes in self-rated health: a 10-year follow-up study in older people.

              The purpose was to examine changes in self-rated health (SRH) in older people and associations between these changes and various self-reported and objectively measured indicators of health status, functional performance and activity at three time-points 5 years apart. Further, our aim was to examine whether SRH takes the form of a continuum. The study group comprised all the baseline 75-year-old inhabitants of the City of Jyväskylä, Finland (N=382). Four groups were formed according to change/stability in SRH: 'good-good', 'good-bad', 'bad-good' and 'bad-bad'. Cross-tabulation and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to examine the cross-sectional differences, and GLM Repeated Measures to analyze the differences in changes in the determinants of SRH over time. Stability was more common than change in SRH, although in most participants there was a decline in most of the determinants of SRH. A systematic relation was found between the SRH groups and the indicators of health status, functional performance and physical and social activity, especially over the first 5-year period. A substantial decrease in these indicators was associated with a decline in SRH. Among older people change and stability in SRH over time systematically reflect health status, functional performance, and physical and social activity. The relatively high stability found in SRH indicates that with increasing age older people adapt to their worsening health conditions. SRH seems to form a continuum when a wide range of self-reported and objectively measured indicators on physical, psychological and social components of health are taken into account.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                eu
                Enfermería universitaria
                Enferm. univ
                Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Escuela Nacional de Enfermería y Obstetricia (México )
                2395-8421
                June 2015
                : 12
                : 2
                : 56-62
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidad de Almería Spain
                Article
                S1665-70632015000200056
                10.1016/j.reu.2015.03.002

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                Product
                Product Information: SciELO Mexico
                Categories
                Nursing

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