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      Sexual dimorphism in degenerative disorders of the spine.

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          Abstract

          Sexual dimorphism is evident during formation, growth, and development of the spine. Pregnancy alters spine physiology and is a risk factor for back pain. The processes of aging and spinal degeneration adversely affect men and women slightly differently. Although degenerative changes are observed at similar rates in both sexes, women seem to be more susceptible to degenerative changes leading to instability and malalignment, structural deterioration, such a stenosis or disc degeneration. Surgical satisfaction is greater in men, which has been attributed to poorer preoperative function secondary to more advanced disease at time of surgery and lower patient expectations for clinical improvement, both observed in women.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Orthop. Clin. North Am.
          The Orthopedic clinics of North America
          Elsevier BV
          0030-5898
          0030-5898
          Oct 2006
          : 37
          : 4
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, 1725 West Harrison Street, Suite 1063, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.
          Article
          S0030-5898(06)00045-9
          10.1016/j.ocl.2006.08.001
          17141011
          5b106d89-8200-4cee-bd9c-4a636c9fe3cf

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