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      The Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS): development and UK validation


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          There is increasing international interest in the concept of mental well-being and its contribution to all aspects of human life. Demand for instruments to monitor mental well-being at a population level and evaluate mental health promotion initiatives is growing. This article describes the development and validation of a new scale, comprised only of positively worded items relating to different aspects of positive mental health: the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (WEMWBS).


          WEMWBS was developed by an expert panel drawing on current academic literature, qualitative research with focus groups, and psychometric testing of an existing scale. It was validated on a student and representative population sample. Content validity was assessed by reviewing the frequency of complete responses and the distribution of responses to each item. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the hypothesis that the scale measured a single construct. Internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach's alpha. Criterion validity was explored in terms of correlations between WEMWBS and other scales and by testing whether the scale discriminated between population groups in line with pre-specified hypotheses. Test-retest reliability was assessed at one week using intra-class correlation coefficients. Susceptibility to bias was measured using the Balanced Inventory of Desired Responding.


          WEMWBS showed good content validity. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the single factor hypothesis. A Cronbach's alpha score of 0.89 (student sample) and 0.91 (population sample) suggests some item redundancy in the scale. WEMWBS showed high correlations with other mental health and well-being scales and lower correlations with scales measuring overall health. Its distribution was near normal and the scale did not show ceiling effects in a population sample. It discriminated between population groups in a way that is largely consistent with the results of other population surveys. Test-retest reliability at one week was high (0.83). Social desirability bias was lower or similar to that of other comparable scales.


          WEMWBS is a measure of mental well-being focusing entirely on positive aspects of mental health. As a short and psychometrically robust scale, with no ceiling effects in a population sample, it offers promise as a tool for monitoring mental well-being at a population level. Whilst WEMWBS should appeal to those evaluating mental health promotion initiatives, it is important that the scale's sensitivity to change is established before it is recommended in this context.

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          Most cited references28

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          Enhancement and denial in socially desirable responding.

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            Measuring the dimension of psychological general well-being by the WHO-5

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              Well-being therapy. A novel psychotherapeutic approach for residual symptoms of affective disorders.

              There is increasing awareness of the prognostic value of residual symptomatology in affective disorders and of the need for specific therapeutic strategies in this phase of illness. The aims of the study were to apply a novel, short-term psychotherapeutic approach for increasing well-being, based on Ryff's conceptual model, to remitted patients with affective disorders and to compare the results with those obtained with symptom-oriented cognitive behavioural strategies. Twenty patients with affective disorders (major depression, panic disorder with agoraphobia, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder) who had been successfully treated by behavioural or pharmacological methods were randomly assigned to a well-being enhancing therapeutic strategy (well-being therapy) or cognitive-behavioural treatment of residual symptoms. Both well-being and cognitive-behavioural therapies were associated with a significant reduction of residual symptoms. However, a significant advantage of well-being therapy over cognitive-behavioural strategies was observed with observer-rated methods. These preliminary results suggest the feasibility of well-being therapy in the residual stage of affective disorders. Further research should determine its value as a relapse-preventive strategy in specific mood and anxiety disorders.

                Author and article information

                Health Qual Life Outcomes
                Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
                BioMed Central
                27 November 2007
                : 5
                : 63
                [1 ]Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
                [2 ]Research Unit in Health, Behaviour and Change, School of Clinical Sciences & Community Health, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
                [3 ]School of Sociology & Social Policy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
                [4 ]NHS Health Scotland, Glasgow, UK
                [5 ]Faculty of Health and Social Care, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK
                Copyright © 2007 Tennant et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


                Health & Social care
                Health & Social care


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