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      Implications of Genotype and Enzyme Phenotype in Pyridoxine Response of Patients with Type I Primary Hyperoxaluria

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          Background: Marked hyperoxaluria due to liver-specific deficiency of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase activity (AGT) characterizes type I primary hyperoxaluria (PHI). Approximately half of PHI patients experience improvement in the degree of hyperoxaluria following pyridoxine (VB6) treatment. Recently, we showed an association between VB6 response and the commonest PHI mutation G170R, with patients possessing one or two copies showing 50% reduction or complete to near complete normalization of oxaluria, respectively. Two patients showed responses varying from this pattern. To further clarify the molecular basis of VB6 response in PHI, we performed additional genotyping. Methods: 23 PHI patients diagnosed via hepatic enzyme analysis, hyperoxaluria and hyperglycolic aciduria or homozygosity for a known mutation, availability of pre- and post-VB6 24-hour urine oxalate and GFR >40 ml/min/1.73 m<sup>2</sup> were included. Data was retrieved retrospectively, oxalate measured by oxalate oxidase, and genotyping performed by PCR-based methods. Results: VB6 response was associated with the G170R and F152I mutations. Eight new sequence changes were detected. Conclusions: In PHI, two mutations resulting in AGT mistargeting are associated with VB6 response. Whether this favorable effect is specific to the peroxisomal-to-mitochondrial mistargeting caused by these changes or due to another mechanism remains to be determined.

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          Pyridoxine effect in type I primary hyperoxaluria is associated with the most common mutant allele.

          Pyridoxine (VB6) response in type I primary hyperoxaluria (PHI) is variable, with nearly equal numbers of patients showing partial to complete reductions in oxaluria, and resistance. Because high urine oxalate concentrations cause stones and renal injury, reduction in urine oxalate excretion is deemed favorable. Mechanisms of VB6 action on hepatic alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT), the deficient enzyme in PHI, and VB6 dose response have not been well-characterized. Sequencing or restriction site-generating polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for c.508 genotyping in 23 PHI patients. Pre- and post-VB6 24-hour urine oxalate excretion and VB6 dose were ascertained by retrospective chart review. There were six c.508 G>A homozygotes (AA), eight heterozygotes (GA), and nine patients lacking this change (GG). Pre-VB6 urine oxalate excretion was 152 +/- 39, 203 +/- 68 and 206 +/- 74 mg/1.73 m(2)/24 hours, respectively, and did not differ [AA vs. GA (P= 0.07); AA vs. GG (P= 0.07); GA vs. GG, (P= 0.47)]. Post-VB6 urine oxalate excretion was normal in AA (pre- vs. post-VB6) (P A allele confers VB6 response in PHI and VB6 doses of 5 mg/kg/day appear sufficient. c.508 genotyping can be used to predict VB6 response and guide treatment in PHI. [c represents cDNA sequence where nucleotide position +1 corresponds to the adenine (A) of the translation start codon ATG. Equivalent positions based on 5' UTR nucleotide numbering are as follows: c.508 G>A = G630A (Gly170Arg), c.32 C>T = C154T (Pro11Leu), and c.454 T>A = T576A (Phe152Ile)], yields highest residual AGT activity. To test whether VB6 response might be attributable to this allele, we performed c.508 genotyping.
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            Evaluation of mutation screening as a first line test for the diagnosis of the primary hyperoxalurias.

            A definitive diagnosis of primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) and primary hyperoxaluria type 2 (PH2) requires the measurement of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) and glyoxylate reductase (GR) activities, respectively, in a liver biopsy. We have evaluated a molecular genetic approach for the diagnosis of these autosomal-recessive diseases. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect three common mutations in the AGXT gene (c.33_34insC, c.508G>A, and c.731T>C) and one, c.103delG, in the GRHPR gene in DNA samples from 365 unrelated individuals referred for diagnosis of PH1 and/or PH2 by liver enzyme analysis. One or more of these mutations was found in 183 (68.8%) biopsy proven cases of PH1 and PH2 with a test negative predictive value of 62% and 2%, respectively. 102 (34.1%) patients were homozygous or compound heterozygous, making a molecular diagnosis possible. Age of onset and presenting features were similar in patients homozygous for any of the four mutations. Of the AGXT homozygotes, only the c.508G>A mutant was associated with significant AGT catalytic activity and in two of these activity was in the low normal range, possibly reflecting variation in mitochondrial content of the biopsy as this particular mutation is associated with mitochondrial mistargeting. Limited mutation analysis can provide a useful first line test for PH1 and PH2 in patients in whom primary hyperoxaluria is suspected and in whom secondary causes have been excluded. Those patients in whom a single mutation, or no mutation, is found can then be selectively targeted for liver biopsy.
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              Clinical implications of mutation analysis in primary hyperoxaluria type 1.

              Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is an inborn error of glyoxylate metabolism with an extensive clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Although over 50 disease-causing mutations have been identified, the relationship between genotype and clinical outcome remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine this association in order to find clues for improvement of patient care. AGXT mutation analysis and assessment of biochemical characteristics and clinical outcome were performed on patients from a Dutch PH1 cohort. Thirty-three of a cohort of 57 PH1 patients, identified in The Netherlands over a period of 30 years, were analyzed. Ten different mutations were found. The most common mutations were the Gly170Arg, Phe152Ile, and the 33insC mutations, with an allele frequency of 43%, 19%, and 15%, respectively. Homozygous Gly170Arg and Phe152Ile mutations were associated with pyridoxine responsiveness and a preserved renal function over time when treatment was timely initiated. All patients homozygous for the 33insC mutation had end-stage renal disease (ESRD) before the first year of age. In two unrelated patients, a new Val336Asp mutation was found coupled with the Gly170Arg mutation on the minor allele. We also found 3 patients homozygous for a novel Gly82Arg mutation with adverse outcome in 2 of them. Early detection of Gly170Arg and Phe152Ile mutations in PH1 has important clinical implications because of their association with pyridoxine responsiveness and clinical outcome. The association of a homozygous 33insC mutation with severe infantile ESRD, resulting in early deaths in 2 out of 3 cases, warrants a choice for prenatal diagnostics in affected families.

                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                April 2005
                18 May 2005
                : 25
                : 2
                : 183-188
                Mayo Clinic Hyperoxaluria Center, Divisions of Pediatric Nephrology and Nephrology, Departments of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine and Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minn., USA
                85411 Am J Nephrol 2005;25:183–188
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, References: 16, Pages: 6
                Self URI (application/pdf):
                7th International Workshop on Primary Hyperoxaluria. October, 2004, Rochester, Minn. ...

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Genotype, Phenotype, Pyridoxine, Primary hyperoxaluria


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