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      Melatonin Improves Drought Stress Tolerance of Tomato by Modulating Plant Growth, Root Architecture, Photosynthesis, and Antioxidant Defense System

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          Abstract

          Tomato is an important vegetable that is highly sensitive to drought (DR) stress which impairs the development of tomato seedlings. Recently, melatonin (ME) has emerged as a nontoxic, regulatory biomolecule that regulates plant growth and enhances the DR tolerance mechanism in plants. The present study was conducted to examine the defensive role of ME in photosynthesis, root architecture, and the antioxidant enzymes’ activities of tomato seedlings subjected to DR stress. Our results indicated that DR stress strongly suppressed growth and biomass production, inhibited photosynthesis, negatively affected root morphology, and reduced photosynthetic pigments in tomato seedlings. Per contra, soluble sugars, proline, and ROS (reactive oxygen species) were suggested to be improved in seedlings under DR stress. Conversely, ME (100 µM) pretreatment improved the detrimental-effect of DR by restoring chlorophyll content, root architecture, gas exchange parameters and plant growth attributes compared with DR-group only. Moreover, ME supplementation also mitigated the antioxidant enzymes [APX (ascorbate peroxidase), CAT (catalase), DHAR (dehydroascorbate reductase), GST (glutathione S-transferase), GR (glutathione reductase), MDHAR (monodehydroascorbate reductase), POD (peroxidase), and SOD (superoxide dismutase)], non-enzymatic antioxidant [AsA (ascorbate), DHA (dehydroascorbic acid), GSH (glutathione), and GSSG, (oxidized glutathione)] activities, reduced oxidative damage [EL (electrolyte leakage), H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide), MDA (malondialdehyde), and O2•− (superoxide ion)] and osmoregulation (soluble sugars and proline) of tomato seedlings, by regulating gene expression for SOD, CAT, APX, GR, POD, GST, DHAR, and MDHAR. These findings determine that ME pretreatment could efficiently improve the seedlings growth, root characteristics, leaf photosynthesis and antioxidant machinery under DR stress and thereby increasing the seedlings’ adaptability to DR stress.

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          Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) Method.

          The two most commonly used methods to analyze data from real-time, quantitative PCR experiments are absolute quantification and relative quantification. Absolute quantification determines the input copy number, usually by relating the PCR signal to a standard curve. Relative quantification relates the PCR signal of the target transcript in a treatment group to that of another sample such as an untreated control. The 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method is a convenient way to analyze the relative changes in gene expression from real-time quantitative PCR experiments. The purpose of this report is to present the derivation, assumptions, and applications of the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method. In addition, we present the derivation and applications of two variations of the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method that may be useful in the analysis of real-time, quantitative PCR data. Copyright 2001 Elsevier Science (USA).
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            COPPER ENZYMES IN ISOLATED CHLOROPLASTS. POLYPHENOLOXIDASE IN BETA VULGARIS

            D ARNON (1949)
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              ROS Are Good.

              Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are thought to play a dual role in plant biology. They are required for many important signaling reactions, but are also toxic byproducts of aerobic metabolism. Recent studies revealed that ROS are necessary for the progression of several basic biological processes including cellular proliferation and differentiation. Moreover, cell death-that was previously thought to be the outcome of ROS directly killing cells by oxidation, in other words via oxidative stress-is now considered to be the result of ROS triggering a physiological or programmed pathway for cell death. This Opinion focuses on the possibility that ROS are beneficial to plants, supporting cellular proliferation, physiological function, and viability, and that maintaining a basal level of ROS in cells is essential for life.
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                Author and article information

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                Journal
                ANTIGE
                Antioxidants
                Antioxidants
                MDPI AG
                2076-3921
                February 2022
                February 03 2022
                : 11
                : 2
                : 309
                Article
                10.3390/antiox11020309
                35204192
                5b1d0a1c-fd07-47c0-90d0-85129f71538d
                © 2022

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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