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      Colorectal Cancer Incidence and Mortality Rates Among New York City Adults Ages 20–54 years during 1976–2015

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          Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence rates are rising in younger Americans and mortality rates are increasing among younger white Americans. We used New York State Cancer Registry data to examine New York City CRC incidence and mortality trends among adults ages 20–54 years by race from 1976 to 2015. Annual percent change (APC) was considered statistically significant at P less than .05 using a two-sided test. CRC incidence increased among those ages 20–49 years, yet blacks had the largest APC of 2.2% (1993–2015; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4% to 3.1%) compared with 0.5% in whites (1976–2015; 95% CI = 0.2% to 0.7%). Among those aged 50–54 years, incidence increased among blacks by 0.8% annually (1976–2015; 95% CI = 0.4% to 1.1%), but not among whites. CRC mortality decreased among both age and race groups. These findings emphasize the value of local registry data to understand trends locally, the importance of timely screening, and the need for clinicians to consider CRC among all patients with compatible signs and symptoms.

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          Most cited references 11

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          Screening for Colorectal Cancer: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement.

          Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States. In 2016, an estimated 134,000 persons will be diagnosed with the disease, and about 49,000 will die from it. Colorectal cancer is most frequently diagnosed among adults aged 65 to 74 years; the median age at death from colorectal cancer is 68 years.
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            Colorectal cancer screening for average-risk adults: 2018 guideline update from the American Cancer Society

            In the United States, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth most common cancer diagnosed among adults and the second leading cause of death from cancer. For this guideline update, the American Cancer Society (ACS) used an existing systematic evidence review of the CRC screening literature and microsimulation modeling analyses, including a new evaluation of the age to begin screening by race and sex and additional modeling that incorporates changes in US CRC incidence. Screening with any one of multiple options is associated with a significant reduction in CRC incidence through the detection and removal of adenomatous polyps and other precancerous lesions and with a reduction in mortality through incidence reduction and early detection of CRC. Results from modeling analyses identified efficient and model-recommendable strategies that started screening at age 45 years. The ACS Guideline Development Group applied the Grades of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria in developing and rating the recommendations. The ACS recommends that adults aged 45 years and older with an average risk of CRC undergo regular screening with either a high-sensitivity stool-based test or a structural (visual) examination, depending on patient preference and test availability. As a part of the screening process, all positive results on noncolonoscopy screening tests should be followed up with timely colonoscopy. The recommendation to begin screening at age 45 years is a qualified recommendation. The recommendation for regular screening in adults aged 50 years and older is a strong recommendation. The ACS recommends (qualified recommendations) that: 1) average-risk adults in good health with a life expectancy of more than 10 years continue CRC screening through the age of 75 years; 2) clinicians individualize CRC screening decisions for individuals aged 76 through 85 years based on patient preferences, life expectancy, health status, and prior screening history; and 3) clinicians discourage individuals older than 85 years from continuing CRC screening. The options for CRC screening are: fecal immunochemical test annually; high-sensitivity, guaiac-based fecal occult blood test annually; multitarget stool DNA test every 3 years; colonoscopy every 10 years; computed tomography colonography every 5 years; and flexible sigmoidoscopy every 5 years. CA Cancer J Clin 2018;68:250-281. © 2018 American Cancer Society.
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              Colorectal Cancer Incidence Patterns in the United States, 1974-2013.

              Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence in the United States is declining rapidly overall but, curiously, is increasing among young adults. Age-specific and birth cohort patterns can provide etiologic clues, but have not been recently examined.

                Author and article information

                JNCI Cancer Spectr
                JNCI Cancer Spectr
                JNCI Cancer Spectrum
                Oxford University Press
                October 2018
                11 December 2018
                11 December 2018
                : 2
                : 4
                [1 ]New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, Queens, NY
                [2 ]Data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis
                [3 ]Drafted the manuscript
                [4 ]The statistical analysis
                [5 ]Provided supervision. All authors contributed to the concept and design; acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data; and critical revision of the manuscript
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Kellie C. Van Beck, MPH, New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, 42-09 28th St, CN 11-131, Long Island City, NY 11101 (e-mail: kvanbeck@ ).
                © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (, which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact

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                Pages: 3
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