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      Piebaldism: A brief report and review of the literature

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          Abstract

          Piebaldism is a rare autosomal dominant disorder of melanocyte development characterized by a congenital white forelock and multiple symmetrical stable hypopigmented or depigmented macules. We report a family with piebaldism affecting three successive generations and also review the literature.

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          Most cited references 21

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          Waardenburg syndrome.

           A P Read,  V Newton (1997)
          Auditory-pigmentary syndromes are caused by physical absence of melanocytes from the skin, hair, eyes, or the stria vascularis of the cochlea. Dominantly inherited examples with patchy depigmentation are usually labelled Waardenburg syndrome (WS). Type I WS, characterised by dystopia canthorum, is caused by loss of function mutations in the PAX3 gene. Type III WS (Klein-Waardenburg syndrome, with abnormalities of the arms) is an extreme presentation of type I; some but not all patients are homozygotes. Type IV WS (Shah-Waardenburg syndrome with Hirschsprung disease) can be caused by mutations in the genes for endothelin-3 or one of its receptors, EDNRB. Type II WS is a heterogeneous group, about 15% of whom are heterozygous for mutations in the MITF (microphthalmia associated transcription factor) gene. All these forms show marked variability even within families, and at present it is not possible to predict the severity, even when a mutation is detected. Characterising the genes is helping to unravel important developmental pathways in the neural crest and its derivatives.
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            Tietz syndrome (hypopigmentation/deafness) caused by mutation of MITF.

            Patients with Tietz syndrome have congenital profound deafness and generalised hypopigmentation, inherited in a fully penetrant autosomal dominant fashion. The pigmentary features and complete penetrance make this syndrome distinct among syndromes with pigmentary anomalies and deafness, which characteristically have patchy depigmentation and variable penetrance. Only one family has been reported with the exact features described in the original report of this syndrome. This family was reascertained and a missense mutation was found in the basic region of the MITF gene in family members with Tietz syndrome. Mutations in other regions of this gene have been found to produce Waardenburg syndrome type 2 (WS2), which also includes pigmentary changes and hearing loss, but in contrast to Tietz syndrome, depigmentation is patchy and hearing loss is variable in WS2.
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              A novel KIT mutation results in piebaldism with progressive depigmentation.

              Piebaldism is an autosomal dominant disorder of melanocyte development characterized by white skin (leukoderma) and white hair (poliosis). In general, piebaldism has been distinguished from vitiligo by the presence of lesions from birth, the hyperpigmented macules of depigmented and normal skin, and the static course. We hypothesized that an 8-year-old girl and her mother who had unusual piebaldism of a progressive nature would have a novel mutation of the KIT gene, the gene that is altered in patients with piebaldism, or of the MITF (microphthalmia activating transcription factor) gene, which would be expected to cause type II Waardenburg syndrome, but is associated with a phenotype of progressive depigmentation in mice. Genomic DNA was extracted from the blood of affected and unaffected family members, and the KIT and MITF genes were sequenced. Genetic analysis of genomic DNA from both the mother and daughter with progressive piebaldism revealed a novel Val620Ala (1859T>C) mutation in the KIT gene, which was not detected in family members without progressive piebaldism or in 52 normal control individuals. This KIT mutation affects the intracellular tyrosine kinase domain and thus predicts a severe phenotype, as was the case in this family. Although other KIT mutations in the vicinity of codon 620 lead to the standard phenotype of static piebaldism, the Val620Ala mutation is novel and may result in a previously undescribed phenotype with melanocyte instability, leading to progressive loss of pigmentation as well as the progressive appearance of the hyperpigmented macules.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Indian Dermatol Online J
                Indian Dermatol Online J
                IDOJ
                Indian Dermatology Online Journal
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                2229-5178
                2249-5673
                May-Aug 2012
                : 3
                : 2
                : 144-147
                Affiliations
                Department of Skin and VD, Government Medical College, Haldwani (Nainital), Uttarakhand, India
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Dr. Saurabh Agarwal, Department of Skin and VD, Government Medical College, Haldwani (Nainital), Uttarakhand – 263 139, India. E-mail: imsag@ 123456rediffmail.com
                Article
                IDOJ-3-144
                10.4103/2229-5178.96722
                3481873
                23130293
                Copyright: © Indian Dermatology Online Journal

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Brief Report

                Dermatology

                autosomal dominant, piebaldism, pigmentary disorder

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