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      Connective Tissue Growth Factor Is Responsible for Transforming Growth Factor-Beta-Induced Peritoneal Mesothelial Cell Apoptosis

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          Abstract

          Background: Previous studies found that transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) induces mesothelial production of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), which may be downstream mediators of TGF-β. Since high dose TGF-β induces apoptosis of peritoneal mesothelial cells (PMC), we study the effect of CTGF blockade in the system of TGF-β-induced PMC apoptosis. Method: We examined the effect of TGF-W in primary culture of rat peritoneal mesothelial cells (PMC). PMC apoptosis was studied by flow cytometry. The effect of CTGF was blocked by antibody and short-interfering RNA (siRNA). Expression of apoptotic gene was studied by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Result: In cultured unstimulated rat PMC, there is a low but definite incidence of spontaneous apoptosis. Stimulation with TGF-β 50 pg/ml induces an upregulation of apoptotic gene BAX expression and a downregulation of anti-apoptotic gene BCL-2L expression, and a 4-fold increase in PMC apoptosis. The effect of TGF-β-induced PMC apoptosis was partly prevented by antibody against CTGF, and completely abolished by CTGF-specific siRNA, while CTGF-blockade by siRNA had no effect on PMC necrosis. CTGF silencing by siRNA prevented the down-regulation of BCL-2L expression induced by TGF-β, had no effect on the BAX expression. Conclusion: Our results indicate that CTGF is an important downstream mediator of TGF-β-induced PMC apoptosis.

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          Most cited references 20

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          Peritoneal dialysis and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of mesothelial cells.

          During continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, the peritoneum is exposed to bioincompatible dialysis fluids that cause denudation of mesothelial cells and, ultimately, tissue fibrosis and failure of ultrafiltration. However, the mechanism of this process has yet to be elucidated. Mesothelial cells isolated from effluents in dialysis fluid from patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis were phenotypically characterized by flow cytometry, confocal immunofluorescence, Western blotting, and reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. These cells were compared with mesothelial cells from omentum and treated with various stimuli in vitro to mimic the transdifferentiation observed during continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Results were confirmed in vivo by immunohistochemical analysis performed on peritoneal-biopsy specimens. Soon after dialysis is initiated, peritoneal mesothelial cells undergo a transition from an epithelial phenotype to a mesenchymal phenotype with a progressive loss of epithelial morphology and a decrease in the expression of cytokeratins and E-cadherin through an induction of the transcriptional repressor snail. Mesothelial cells also acquire a migratory phenotype with the up-regulation of expression of alpha2 integrin. In vitro analyses point to wound repair and profibrotic and inflammatory cytokines as factors that initiate mesothelial transdifferentiation. Immunohistochemical studies of peritoneal-biopsy specimens from patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis demonstrate the expression of the mesothelial markers intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and cytokeratins in fibroblast-like cells entrapped in the stroma, suggesting that these cells stemmed from local conversion of mesothelial cells. Our results suggest that mesothelial cells have an active role in the structural and functional alteration of the peritoneum during peritoneal dialysis. The findings suggest potential targets for the design of new dialysis solutions and markers for the monitoring of patients. Copyright 2003 Massachusetts Medical Society
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            CTGF expression is induced by TGF- beta in cardiac fibroblasts and cardiac myocytes: a potential role in heart fibrosis.

            Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a cysteine-rich protein induced by transforming growth factor beta (TGF- beta) in connective tissue cells. CTGF can trigger many of the cellular processes underlying fibrosis, such as cell proliferation, adhesion, migration and the synthesis of extracellular matrix; however, its role in acute and chronic cardiac injury is not fully understood. Here, we show that TGF- beta is a specific inducer of CTGF expression in both cardiac fibroblasts and cardiac myocytes. The activity of a CTGF promoter-based reporter construct correlated with endogenous CTGF expression, suggesting that TGF- beta induces CTGF expression most likely by activating its promoter. Upregulation of CTGF coincided with an increase in fibronectin, collagen type I and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 production. Forskolin, a stimulator of cyclic AMP, blocked TGF- beta induced CTGF expression and reduced the basal level of CTGF, whereas an inhibitor that blocks the MAP kinase signaling pathway (PD 98059) significantly enhanced TGF- beta induced CTGF expression. Furthermore, we found that both TGF- beta and CTGF mRNAs were significantly elevated in the left ventricles and septa of rat hearts 2-16 weeks following myocardial infarction. This correlated well with concomitant increases in fibronectin, and type I and type III collagen mRNA levels in these animal hearts. Significant upregulation of CTGF was also detected in human heart samples derived from patients diagnosed with cardiac ischemia. Based on these findings, we propose that CTGF is an important mediator of TGF- beta signaling in the heart and abnormal expression of this gene could be used as a diagnostic marker for cardiac fibrosis. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
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              TGF-  Signaling in Renal Disease

               E Bottinger (2002)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEE
                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.1660-2129
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2129
                2006
                July 2006
                24 April 2006
                : 103
                : 4
                : e166-e174
                Affiliations
                Departments of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, SAR, China
                Article
                92907 Nephron Exp Nephrol 2006;103:e166–e174
                10.1159/000092907
                16636587
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 8, References: 34, Pages: 1
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/92907
                Categories
                Original Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                RNA interference, Peritoneal dialysis, Cytokine

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