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      Growth Hormone Treatment Downregulates Serum Leptin Levels in Children Independent of Changes in Body Mass Index

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          Abstract

          The changes in serum leptin levels during growth hormone (GH) treatment were studied in 27 children, 17 with GH deficiency (GHD), 10 with idiopathic short stature (ISS), and 9 with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). Within 1 month of GH treatment, serum leptin levels decreased by 40% in the GHD children (p < 0.01). There was no significant change in serum leptin level in the children with ISS. In children with PWS, the mean serum leptin level decreased by almost 60% after 3 months of treatment (p < 0.001). Thereafter, no further decline was observed in any of the 3 groups. Changes in body composition became evident first after the 3 months of treatment. In the GHD children, the BMI was unchanged while the mean body fat percentage was 2.7% lower after 1 year of GH treatment (p < 0.05). In the ISS children, neither BMI nor body fat percentage were significantly changed during treatment. The PWS children exhibited a significant decrease in BMI after 6 months of GH treatment without any further change during the remaining period of treatment. In this group, the mean body fat percentage decreased from 42 ± 2.4 to 28 ± 2.2% after treatment (p < 0.001). The finding that the fall in leptin occurs before changes in body composition become detectable suggests a direct effect of GH on leptin production, metabolism, or clearance.

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          Most cited references 13

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          Identification and expression cloning of a leptin receptor, OB-R.

          The ob gene product, leptin, is an important circulating signal for the regulation of body weight. To identify high affinity leptin-binding sites, we generated a series of leptin-alkaline phosphatase (AP) fusion proteins as well as [125I]leptin. After a binding survey of cell lines and tissues, we identified leptin-binding sites in the mouse choroid plexus. A cDNA expression library was prepared from mouse choroid plexus and screened with a leptin-AP fusion protein to identify a leptin receptor (OB-R). OB-R is a single membrane-spanning receptor most related to the gp130 signal-transducing component of the IL-6 receptor, the G-CSF receptor, and the LIF receptor. OB-R mRNA is expressed not only in choroid plexus, but also in several other tissues, including hypothalamus. Genetic mapping of the gene encoding OB-R shows that it is within the 5.1 cM interval of mouse chromosome 4 that contains the db locus.
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            A mutation in the human leptin receptor gene causes obesity and pituitary dysfunction.

            The adipocyte-specific hormone leptin, the product of the obese (ob) gene, regulates adipose-tissue mass through hypothalamic effects on satiety and energy expenditure. Leptin acts through the leptin receptor, a single-transmembrane-domain receptor of the cytokine-receptor family. In rodents, homozygous mutations in genes encoding leptin or the leptin receptor cause early-onset morbid obesity, hyperphagia and reduced energy expenditure. These rodents also show hypercortisolaemia, alterations in glucose homeostasis, dyslipidaemia, and infertility due to hypogonadotropic hypogonadisms. In humans, leptin deficiency due to a mutation in the leptin gene is associated with early-onset obesity. Here we describe a homozygous mutation in the human leptin receptor gene that results in a truncated leptin receptor lacking both the transmembrane and the intracellular domains. In addition to their early-onset morbid obesity, patients homozygous for this mutation have no pubertal development and their secretion of growth hormone and thyrotropin is reduced. These results indicate that leptin is an important physiological regulator of several endocrine functions in humans.
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              Design and synthesis of multi-haem proteins.

              A water-soluble, 62-residue, di-alpha-helical peptide has been synthesized which accommodates two bis-histidyl haem groups. The peptide assembles into a four-helix dimer with 2-fold symmetry and four parallel haems that closely resemble native haems in their spectral and electrochemical properties, including haem-haem redox interaction. This protein is an essential intermediate in the synthesis of molecular 'maquettes', a novel class of simplified versions of the metalloproteins involved in redox catalysis and in energy conversion in respiratory and photosynthetic electron transfer.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                1999
                August 1999
                03 February 2000
                : 52
                : 2
                : 66-72
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Pediatrics, Endocrine Research Unit, Huddinge Hospital, Huddinge, and bDepartment of Woman and Child Health, Karolinska Hospital, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
                Article
                23437 Horm Res 1999;52:66–72
                10.1159/000023437
                10681635
                © 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, References: 53, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Original Paper

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