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      Systematic characterization of the peroxidase gene family provides new insights into fungal pathogenicity in Magnaporthe oryzae


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          Fungal pathogens have evolved antioxidant defense against reactive oxygen species produced as a part of host innate immunity. Recent studies proposed peroxidases as components of antioxidant defense system. However, the role of fungal peroxidases during interaction with host plants has not been explored at the genomic level. Here, we systematically identified peroxidase genes and analyzed their impact on fungal pathogenesis in a model plant pathogenic fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae. Phylogeny reconstruction placed 27 putative peroxidase genes into 15 clades. Expression profiles showed that majority of them are responsive to in planta condition and in vitro H 2O 2. Our analysis of individual deletion mutants for seven selected genes including MoPRX1 revealed that these genes contribute to fungal development and/or pathogenesis. We identified significant and positive correlations among sensitivity to H 2O 2, peroxidase activity and fungal pathogenicity. In-depth analysis of MoPRX1 demonstrated that it is a functional ortholog of thioredoxin peroxidase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is required for detoxification of the oxidative burst within host cells. Transcriptional profiling of other peroxidases in Δ Moprx1 suggested interwoven nature of the peroxidase-mediated antioxidant defense system. The results from this study provide insight into the infection strategy built on evolutionarily conserved peroxidases in the rice blast fungus.

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          Most cited references 46

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          Rapid generation of superoxide and accumulation of H2O2 is a characteristic early feature of the hypersensitive response following perception of pathogen avirulence signals. Emerging data indicate that the oxidative burst reflects activation of a membrane-bound NADPH oxidase closely resembling that operating in activated neutrophils. The oxidants are not only direct protective agents, but H2O2 also functions as a substrate for oxidative cross-linking in the cell wall, as a threshold trigger for hypersensitive cell death, and as a diffusible signal for induction of cellular protectant genes in surrounding cells. Activation of the oxidative burst is a central component of a highly amplified and integrated signal system, also involving salicylic acid and perturbations of cytosolic Ca2+, which underlies the expression of disease-resistance mechanisms.
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            H2O2 from the oxidative burst orchestrates the plant hypersensitive disease resistance response.

            Microbial elicitors or attempted infection with an avirulent pathogen strain causes the rapid production of reactive oxygen intermediates. We report here that H2O2 from this oxidative burst not only drives the cross-linking of cell wall structural proteins, but also functions as a local trigger of programmed death in challenged cells and as a diffusible signal for the induction in adjacent cells of genes encoding cellular protectants such as glutathione S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase. Thus, H2O2 from the oxidative burst plays a key role in the orchestration of a localized hypersensitive response during the expression of plant disease resistance.
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              Computational method to predict mitochondrially imported proteins and their targeting sequences.

               M Claros,  P Vincens (1996)
              Most of the proteins that are used in mitochondria are imported through the double membrane of the organelle. The information that guides the protein to mitochondria is contained in its sequence and structure, although no direct evidence can be obtained. In this article, discriminant analysis has been performed with 47 parameters and a large set of mitochondrial proteins extracted from the SwissProt database. A computational method that facilitates the analysis and objective prediction of mitochondrially imported proteins has been developed. If only the amino acid sequence is considered, 75-97% of the mitochondrial proteins studied have been predicted to be imported into mitochondria. Moreover, the existence of mitochondrial-targeting sequences is predicted in 76-94% of the analyzed mitochondrial precursor proteins. As a practical application, the number of unknown yeast open reading frames that might be mitochondrial proteins has been predicted, which revealed that many of them are clustered.

                Author and article information

                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group
                02 July 2015
                : 5
                [1 ]Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Fungal Bioinformatics Laboratory, Center for Fungal Genetic Resources, and Center for Fungal Pathogenesis, Seoul National University , Seoul 151-921, Korea
                Author notes

                Current Address: Korean Lichen Research Institute, Sunchon National University, Sunchon 540-742, Korea.


                Current Address: Division of Life Sciences, College of Life Sciences and Bioengineering, Incheon National University, Incheon 406-772, Korea.


                Current Address: Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.


                Current Address: School of Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk 712-749, Korea.


                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                Copyright © 2015, Macmillan Publishers Limited

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/




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