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      Phosphorylation of Sae2 Mediates Forkhead-associated (FHA) Domain-specific Interaction and Regulates Its DNA Repair Function

      , ,
      Journal of Biological Chemistry
      American Society for Biochemistry & Molecular Biology (ASBMB)

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          Sgs1 helicase and two nucleases Dna2 and Exo1 resect DNA double-strand break ends.

          Formation of single-strand DNA (ssDNA) tails at a double-strand break (DSB) is a key step in homologous recombination and DNA-damage signaling. The enzyme(s) producing ssDNA at DSBs in eukaryotes remain unknown. We monitored 5'-strand resection at inducible DSB ends in yeast and identified proteins required for two stages of resection: initiation and long-range 5'-strand resection. We show that the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 complex (MRX) initiates 5' degradation, whereas Sgs1 and Dna2 degrade 5' strands exposing long 3' strands. Deletion of SGS1 or DNA2 reduces resection and DSB repair by single-strand annealing between distant repeats while the remaining long-range resection activity depends on the exonuclease Exo1. In exo1Deltasgs1Delta double mutants, the MRX complex together with Sae2 nuclease generate, in a stepwise manner, only few hundred nucleotides of ssDNA at the break, resulting in inefficient gene conversion and G2/M damage checkpoint arrest. These results provide important insights into the early steps of DSB repair in eukaryotes.
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            Sae2, Exo1 and Sgs1 collaborate in DNA double-strand break processing.

            DNA ends exposed after introduction of double-strand breaks (DSBs) undergo 5'-3' nucleolytic degradation to generate single-stranded DNA, the substrate for binding by the Rad51 protein to initiate homologous recombination. This process is poorly understood in eukaryotes, but several factors have been implicated, including the Mre11 complex (Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2/NBS1), Sae2/CtIP/Ctp1 and Exo1. Here we demonstrate that yeast Exo1 nuclease and Sgs1 helicase function in alternative pathways for DSB processing. Novel, partially resected intermediates accumulate in a double mutant lacking Exo1 and Sgs1, which are poor substrates for homologous recombination. The early processing step that generates partly resected intermediates is dependent on Sae2. When Sae2 is absent, in addition to Exo1 and Sgs1, unprocessed DSBs accumulate and homology-dependent repair fails. These results suggest a two-step mechanism for DSB processing during homologous recombination. First, the Mre11 complex and Sae2 remove a small oligonucleotide(s) from the DNA ends to form an early intermediate. Second, Exo1 and/or Sgs1 rapidly process this intermediate to generate extensive tracts of single-stranded DNA that serve as substrate for Rad51.
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              Stable Isotope Labeling by Amino Acids in Cell Culture, SILAC, as a Simple and Accurate Approach to Expression Proteomics

              S.-E. Ong (2002)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Biological Chemistry
                J. Biol. Chem.
                American Society for Biochemistry & Molecular Biology (ASBMB)
                0021-9258
                1083-351X
                April 23 2015
                April 24 2015
                April 24 2015
                March 11 2015
                : 290
                : 17
                : 10751-10763
                Article
                10.1074/jbc.M114.625293
                5b5569c6-9575-47f4-8803-c7e69eb87755
                © 2015
                History

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