Abstract Schistosomiasis may be caused by six different species of the genus Schistosoma. Current treatment is based only on two drugs: oxamniquine, which is only effective against the Schistosoma mansoni species, and praziquantel, which is ineffective against young parasites. Therefore, research on new drugs and their targets for the treatment of this disease is urgently needed. In the present work, the efficacies of several seaweeds extracts against S. mansoni were tested. Worm couples were incubated with different concentration of seaweed extracts for 120 h and monitored after the first 2 h and then every 24 h to evaluate death, mobility reduction and couple detachment. The extracts of 13 different seaweed species were tested in a first trial and the active extracts were further evaluated in lower concentrations. The extracts of Gracilaria ornata and species belonging to the genera Dictyota and Laurencia showed activity at relatively low concentrations. The active extracts were analyzed by LC–MS, and possible candidates are proposed.