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      Premature ventricular contraction is associated with increased risk of atrial fibrillation: a nationwide population-based study

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          Abstract

          Premature ventricular contraction (PVC) and atrial fibrillation (AF) are common arrhythmias affecting 1–2% of the general population. During PVC, retrograde ventriculo-atrial activation can occur and act like an atrial ectopy. However, the clinical significance of this phenomenon is not fully understood. We aimed to elucidate whether the clinical diagnosis of PVC can increase the risk of new-onset AF. We performed a nationwide population-based analysis using the Korean National Health Insurance Service database. A total of 9,537,713 people without prior history of PVC and AF were identified. Among these people, 4135 developed PVC in 2009, and people with and without PVC were followed until 2018. People who had PVC showed an increased risk of new-onset AF as compared with people without PVC (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.705; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.428–3.013; p < 0.001). The risk of ischemic stroke was also significantly increased in people with PVC (HR 1.160; 95% CI 1.048–1.284; p = 0.0041). New-onset AF developed in 72 people (19.3%) among 374 people with PVC who had ischemic stroke during their follow-up. A significant interaction was observed between PVC and age with people < 65 years at greater risk of new-onset AF for having PVC. In this observational analysis, the risk of new-onset AF and ischemic stroke was increased in people with PVC. Additional evaluation to identify AF in people with PVC can be helpful.

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          Prevalence of diagnosed atrial fibrillation in adults: national implications for rhythm management and stroke prevention: the AnTicoagulation and Risk Factors in Atrial Fibrillation (ATRIA) Study.

          Atrial fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia in elderly persons and a potent risk factor for stroke. However, recent prevalence and projected future numbers of persons with atrial fibrillation are not well described. To estimate prevalence of atrial fibrillation and US national projections of the numbers of persons with atrial fibrillation through the year 2050. Cross-sectional study of adults aged 20 years or older who were enrolled in a large health maintenance organization in California and who had atrial fibrillation diagnosed between July 1, 1996, and December 31, 1997. Prevalence of atrial fibrillation in the study population of 1.89 million; projected number of persons in the United States with atrial fibrillation between 1995-2050. A total of 17 974 adults with diagnosed atrial fibrillation were identified during the study period; 45% were aged 75 years or older. The prevalence of atrial fibrillation was 0.95% (95% confidence interval, 0.94%-0.96%). Atrial fibrillation was more common in men than in women (1.1% vs 0.8%; P<.001). Prevalence increased from 0.1% among adults younger than 55 years to 9.0% in persons aged 80 years or older. Among persons aged 50 years or older, prevalence of atrial fibrillation was higher in whites than in blacks (2.2% vs 1.5%; P<.001). We estimate approximately 2.3 million US adults currently have atrial fibrillation. We project that this will increase to more than 5.6 million (lower bound, 5.0; upper bound, 6.3) by the year 2050, with more than 50% of affected individuals aged 80 years or older. Our study confirms that atrial fibrillation is common among older adults and provides a contemporary basis for estimates of prevalence in the United States. The number of patients with atrial fibrillation is likely to increase 2.5-fold during the next 50 years, reflecting the growing proportion of elderly individuals. Coordinated efforts are needed to face the increasing challenge of optimal stroke prevention and rhythm management in patients with atrial fibrillation.
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            Spontaneous initiation of atrial fibrillation by ectopic beats originating in the pulmonary veins.

            Atrial fibrillation, the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia and a major cause of stroke, results from simultaneous reentrant wavelets. Its spontaneous initiation has not been studied. We studied 45 patients with frequent episodes of atrial fibrillation (mean [+/-SD] duration, 344+/-326 minutes per 24 hours) refractory to drug therapy. The spontaneous initiation of atrial fibrillation was mapped with the use of multielectrode catheters designed to record the earliest electrical activity preceding the onset of atrial fibrillation and associated atrial ectopic beats. The accuracy of the mapping was confirmed by the abrupt disappearance of triggering atrial ectopic beats after ablation with local radio-frequency energy. A single point of origin of atrial ectopic beats was identified in 29 patients, two points of origin were identified in 9 patients, and three or four points of origin were identified in 7 patients, for a total of 69 ectopic foci. Three foci were in the right atrium, 1 in the posterior left atrium, and 65 (94 percent) in the pulmonary veins (31 in the left superior, 17 in the right superior, 11 in the left inferior, and 6 in the right inferior pulmonary vein). The earliest activation was found to have occurred 2 to 4 cm inside the veins, marked by a local depolarization preceding the atrial ectopic beats on the surface electrocardiogram by 106+/-24 msec. Atrial fibrillation was initiated by a sudden burst of rapid depolarizations (340 per minute). A local depolarization could also be recognized during sinus rhythm and abolished by radiofrequency ablation. During a follow-up period of 8+/-6 months after ablation, 28 patients (62 percent) had no recurrence of atrial fibrillation. The pulmonary veins are an important source of ectopic beats, initiating frequent paroxysms of atrial fibrillation. These foci respond to treatment with radio-frequency ablation.
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              Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation: the Task Force for the Management of Atrial Fibrillation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC).

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                jongilchoi@korea.ac.kr
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                15 January 2021
                15 January 2021
                2021
                : 11
                : 1601
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.411134.2, ISNI 0000 0004 0474 0479, Division of Cardiology, , Korea University College of Medicine and Korea University Anam Hospital, ; 73 Goryeodae-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul, 02841 Republic of Korea
                [2 ]GRID grid.263765.3, ISNI 0000 0004 0533 3568, Department of Statistics and Actuarial Science, , Soongsil University, ; Seoul, Republic of Korea
                Article
                81229
                10.1038/s41598-021-81229-0
                7810887
                33452389
                5b621ede-0ce9-4d75-af03-e5f8a5df6531
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                History
                : 12 September 2020
                : 5 January 2021
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                © The Author(s) 2021

                Uncategorized
                cardiovascular biology,cardiology
                Uncategorized
                cardiovascular biology, cardiology

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