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      Burden of Respiratory Infection and Tuberculosis Among US States from 1990 to 2019

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          To estimate the incidence, death, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and attributable risk factors for respiratory infection and tuberculosis (RIT) in the US from 1990 to 2019.


          Following the methodology framework and analytical strategies used in the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019, the incidence, death, DALYs and risk factors of RIT were examined by age, gender and states from 1990 to 2019 in the US. All estimates were calculated as counts, age-standardized rates per 100,000 people and percentage change, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).


          In 2019, the age-standardized incidence, death and DALY rates per 100,000 people of RIT were 339,703 (95% CI 303,184 to 382,354), 13.6 (95% CI 12.2 to 14.4) and 384.9 (95% CI 330.6 to 458.6), respectively. Among RIT causes, upper respiratory infection accounted for the large majority of RIT age-standardized incidence rate, while lower respiratory infection constituted the highest proportion of RIT age-standardized death and DALY rates. The age-standardized incidence, death and DALY rates of RIT in 2019 and their temporal trends since 1990 varied widely across states and socio-demographic index. Among all attributable risk factors, smoking was the leading one for age-standardized RIT deaths in 2019, followed by low temperature and alcohol use (the attributable fractions were 17.7%, 15.3% and 6.9%, respectively).


          Our results suggest that RIT remained a major cause of health burden in the US, with large disparities persisting between US states. Intervention efforts for RIT hotspots, high-risk populations and modifiable risk factors are necessary.

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          Hospitalization and Mortality among Black Patients and White Patients with Covid-19

          Abstract Background Many reports on coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) have highlighted age- and sex-related differences in health outcomes. More information is needed about racial and ethnic differences in outcomes from Covid-19. Methods In this retrospective cohort study, we analyzed data from patients seen within an integrated-delivery health system (Ochsner Health) in Louisiana between March 1 and April 11, 2020, who tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes Covid-19) on qualitative polymerase-chain-reaction assay. The Ochsner Health population is 31% black non-Hispanic and 65% white non-Hispanic. The primary outcomes were hospitalization and in-hospital death. Results A total of 3626 patients tested positive, of whom 145 were excluded (84 had missing data on race or ethnic group, 9 were Hispanic, and 52 were Asian or of another race or ethnic group). Of the 3481 Covid-19–positive patients included in our analyses, 60.0% were female, 70.4% were black non-Hispanic, and 29.6% were white non-Hispanic. Black patients had higher prevalences of obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease than white patients. A total of 39.7% of Covid-19–positive patients (1382 patients) were hospitalized, 76.9% of whom were black. In multivariable analyses, black race, increasing age, a higher score on the Charlson Comorbidity Index (indicating a greater burden of illness), public insurance (Medicare or Medicaid), residence in a low-income area, and obesity were associated with increased odds of hospital admission. Among the 326 patients who died from Covid-19, 70.6% were black. In adjusted time-to-event analyses, variables that were associated with higher in-hospital mortality were increasing age and presentation with an elevated respiratory rate; elevated levels of venous lactate, creatinine, or procalcitonin; or low platelet or lymphocyte counts. However, black race was not independently associated with higher mortality (hazard ratio for death vs. white race, 0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.68 to 1.17). Conclusions In a large cohort in Louisiana, 76.9% of the patients who were hospitalized with Covid-19 and 70.6% of those who died were black, whereas blacks comprise only 31% of the Ochsner Health population. Black race was not associated with higher in-hospital mortality than white race, after adjustment for differences in sociodemographic and clinical characteristics on admission.
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            Global burden of 369 diseases and injuries in 204 countries and territories, 1990–2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019

            Summary Background In an era of shifting global agendas and expanded emphasis on non-communicable diseases and injuries along with communicable diseases, sound evidence on trends by cause at the national level is essential. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) provides a systematic scientific assessment of published, publicly available, and contributed data on incidence, prevalence, and mortality for a mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive list of diseases and injuries. Methods GBD estimates incidence, prevalence, mortality, years of life lost (YLLs), years lived with disability (YLDs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) due to 369 diseases and injuries, for two sexes, and for 204 countries and territories. Input data were extracted from censuses, household surveys, civil registration and vital statistics, disease registries, health service use, air pollution monitors, satellite imaging, disease notifications, and other sources. Cause-specific death rates and cause fractions were calculated using the Cause of Death Ensemble model and spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression. Cause-specific deaths were adjusted to match the total all-cause deaths calculated as part of the GBD population, fertility, and mortality estimates. Deaths were multiplied by standard life expectancy at each age to calculate YLLs. A Bayesian meta-regression modelling tool, DisMod-MR 2.1, was used to ensure consistency between incidence, prevalence, remission, excess mortality, and cause-specific mortality for most causes. Prevalence estimates were multiplied by disability weights for mutually exclusive sequelae of diseases and injuries to calculate YLDs. We considered results in the context of the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a composite indicator of income per capita, years of schooling, and fertility rate in females younger than 25 years. Uncertainty intervals (UIs) were generated for every metric using the 25th and 975th ordered 1000 draw values of the posterior distribution. Findings Global health has steadily improved over the past 30 years as measured by age-standardised DALY rates. After taking into account population growth and ageing, the absolute number of DALYs has remained stable. Since 2010, the pace of decline in global age-standardised DALY rates has accelerated in age groups younger than 50 years compared with the 1990–2010 time period, with the greatest annualised rate of decline occurring in the 0–9-year age group. Six infectious diseases were among the top ten causes of DALYs in children younger than 10 years in 2019: lower respiratory infections (ranked second), diarrhoeal diseases (third), malaria (fifth), meningitis (sixth), whooping cough (ninth), and sexually transmitted infections (which, in this age group, is fully accounted for by congenital syphilis; ranked tenth). In adolescents aged 10–24 years, three injury causes were among the top causes of DALYs: road injuries (ranked first), self-harm (third), and interpersonal violence (fifth). Five of the causes that were in the top ten for ages 10–24 years were also in the top ten in the 25–49-year age group: road injuries (ranked first), HIV/AIDS (second), low back pain (fourth), headache disorders (fifth), and depressive disorders (sixth). In 2019, ischaemic heart disease and stroke were the top-ranked causes of DALYs in both the 50–74-year and 75-years-and-older age groups. Since 1990, there has been a marked shift towards a greater proportion of burden due to YLDs from non-communicable diseases and injuries. In 2019, there were 11 countries where non-communicable disease and injury YLDs constituted more than half of all disease burden. Decreases in age-standardised DALY rates have accelerated over the past decade in countries at the lower end of the SDI range, while improvements have started to stagnate or even reverse in countries with higher SDI. Interpretation As disability becomes an increasingly large component of disease burden and a larger component of health expenditure, greater research and development investment is needed to identify new, more effective intervention strategies. With a rapidly ageing global population, the demands on health services to deal with disabling outcomes, which increase with age, will require policy makers to anticipate these changes. The mix of universal and more geographically specific influences on health reinforces the need for regular reporting on population health in detail and by underlying cause to help decision makers to identify success stories of disease control to emulate, as well as opportunities to improve. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
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              Sex differences in immune responses that underlie COVID-19 disease outcomes

              A growing body of evidence indicates sex differences in the clinical outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) 1–5 . However, whether immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 differ between sexes, and whether such differences explain male susceptibility to COVID-19, is currently unknown. In this study, we examined sex differences in viral loads, SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody titers, plasma cytokines, as well as blood cell phenotyping in COVID-19 patients. By focusing our analysis on patients with moderate disease who had not received immunomodulatory medications, our results revealed that male patients had higher plasma levels of innate immune cytokines such as IL-8 and IL-18 along with more robust induction of non-classical monocytes. In contrast, female patients mounted significantly more robust T cell activation than male patients during SARS-CoV-2 infection, which was sustained in old age. Importantly, we found that a poor T cell response negatively correlated with patients’ age and was associated with worse disease outcome in male patients, but not in female patients. Conversely, higher innate immune cytokines in female patients associated with worse disease progression, but not in male patients. These findings reveal a possible explanation underlying observed sex biases in COVID-19, and provide important basis for the development of sex-based approach to the treatment and care of men and women with COVID-19.

                Author and article information

                Clin Epidemiol
                Clin Epidemiol
                Clinical Epidemiology
                29 June 2021
                : 13
                : 503-514
                [1 ]Department of General Medicine, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University , Changsha, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Centre for Disease Modelling, York University , Toronto, Ontario, Canada
                [3 ]Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Research Center, School of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences , Tabriz, Iran
                [4 ]Aging Research Institute, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences , Tabriz, Iran
                [5 ]Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences , Khorramabad, Iran
                [6 ]Department of Cardiology, The Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University , Changsha, People’s Republic of China
                [7 ]Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology , Wuhan, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Xinyao Liu Department of Cardiology, The Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University , 138 Tongzipo Road, Changsha, 410013, People’s Republic of ChinaTel/Fax +86-0731-88618319 Email lxy_02_18@126.com
                Weijun Wang Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology , 1277 Jiefang Avenue, Wuhan, 430022, People’s Republic of ChinaTel/Fax +86-135-45340998 Email wangweijunct@sina.com
                © 2021 Zhong et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 3, References: 30, Pages: 12
                Funded by: Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, open-funder-registry 10.13039/100000865;
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China, open-funder-registry 10.13039/501100001809;
                The GBD (Global Burden of Disease) 2017 study was funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. The present study was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 81974090).
                Original Research

                Public health

                mortality, disability-adjusted life years, trend, united states


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