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Assessment of Sensory Processing and Executive Functions in Childhood: Development, Reliability, and Validity of the EPYFEI

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      Abstract

      The aim of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the “Assessment of Sensory Processing and Executive Functions in Childhood” (EPYFEI), a questionnaire designed to assess the sensory processing and executive functions of children aged between 3 and 11 years. The EPYFEI was completed by a sample of 1,732 parents of children aged between 3 and 11 years who lived in Spain. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted and showed five main factors: (1) executive attention, working memory, and initiation of actions; (2) general sensory processing; (3) emotional and behavioral self-regulation; (4) supervision, correction of actions, and problem solving; and (5) inhibitory. The reliability of the analysis was high both for the whole questionnaire and for the factors it is composed of. Results provide evidence of the potential usefulness of the EPYFEI in clinical contexts for the early detection of neurodevelopmental disorders, in which there may be a deficit of executive functions and sensory processing.

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      Most cited references 45

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      Quality criteria were proposed for measurement properties of health status questionnaires.

      Recently, an increasing number of systematic reviews have been published in which the measurement properties of health status questionnaires are compared. For a meaningful comparison, quality criteria for measurement properties are needed. Our aim was to develop quality criteria for design, methods, and outcomes of studies on the development and evaluation of health status questionnaires. Quality criteria for content validity, internal consistency, criterion validity, construct validity, reproducibility, longitudinal validity, responsiveness, floor and ceiling effects, and interpretability were derived from existing guidelines and consensus within our research group. For each measurement property a criterion was defined for a positive, negative, or indeterminate rating, depending on the design, methods, and outcomes of the validation study. Our criteria make a substantial contribution toward defining explicit quality criteria for measurement properties of health status questionnaires. Our criteria can be used in systematic reviews of health status questionnaires, to detect shortcomings and gaps in knowledge of measurement properties, and to design validation studies. The future challenge will be to refine and complete the criteria and to reach broad consensus, especially on quality criteria for good measurement properties.
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        Individual-patient monitoring in clinical practice: are available health status surveys adequate?

        Interest has increased in recent years in incorporating health status measures into clinical practice for use at the individual-patient level. We propose six measurement standards for individual-patient applications: (1) practical features, (2) breadth of health measured, (3) depth of health measured, (4) precision for cross-sectional assessment, (5) precision for longitudinal monitoring and (6) validity. We evaluate five health status surveys (Functional Status Questionnaire, Dartmouth COOP Poster Charts, Nottingham Health Profile, Duke Health Profile, and SF-36 Health Survey) that have been proposed for use in clinical practice. We conducted an analytical literature review to evaluate the six measurement standards for individual-patient applications across the five surveys. The most problematic feature of the five surveys was their lack of precision for individual-patient applications. Across all scales, reliability standards for individual assessment and monitoring were not satisfied, and the 95% CIs were very wide. There was little evidence of the validity of the five surveys for screening, diagnosing, or monitoring individual patients. The health status surveys examined in this paper may not be suitable for monitoring the health and treatment status of individual patients. Clinical usefulness of existing measures might be demonstrated as clinical experience is broadened. At this time, however, it seems that new instruments, or adaptation of existing measures and scaling methods, are needed for individual-patient assessment and monitoring.
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          Different contributions of the human amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex to decision-making.

          The somatic marker hypothesis proposes that decision-making is a process that depends on emotion. Studies have shown that damage of the ventromedial prefrontal (VMF) cortex precludes the ability to use somatic (emotional) signals that are necessary for guiding decisions in the advantageous direction. However, given the role of the amygdala in emotional processing, we asked whether amygdala damage also would interfere with decision-making. Furthermore, we asked whether there might be a difference between the roles that the amygdala and VMF cortex play in decision-making. To address these two questions, we studied a group of patients with bilateral amygdala, but not VMF, damage and a group of patients with bilateral VMF, but not amygdala, damage. We used the "gambling task" to measure decision-making performance and electrodermal activity (skin conductance responses, SCR) as an index of somatic state activation. All patients, those with amygdala damage as well as those with VMF damage, were (1) impaired on the gambling task and (2) unable to develop anticipatory SCRs while they pondered risky choices. However, VMF patients were able to generate SCRs when they received a reward or a punishment (play money), whereas amygdala patients failed to do so. In a Pavlovian conditioning experiment the VMF patients acquired a conditioned SCR to visual stimuli paired with an aversive loud sound, whereas amygdala patients failed to do so. The results suggest that amygdala damage is associated with impairment in decision-making and that the roles played by the amygdala and VMF in decision-making are different.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            1Division of Occupational Therapy, Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Granada , Granada, Spain
            2AYTONA Children’s Therapy Centre , Madrid, Spain
            3Department of Medical Science, Faculty of Occupational Therapy, Speech Therapy and Nursing, University of Castilla-La Mancha , Talavera de la Reina, Spain
            4Department of Psychology, Faculty of Occupational Therapy, Speech Therapy and Nursing, University of Castilla-La Mancha , Talavera de la Reina, Spain
            5Division of Occupational Therapy, Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Malaga , Malaga, Spain
            6Primary Care Center Zaidín Sur, Andalusian Health Service , Granada, Spain
            Author notes

            Edited by: Brigitte Vollmer, University of Southampton, United Kingdom

            Reviewed by: Caroline Jane Edmonds, University of East London, United Kingdom; Kumar Sannagowdara, Medical College of Wisconsin, United States

            *Correspondence: Dulce Romero-Ayuso, drayuso@ 123456gmail.com

            Specialty section: This article was submitted to Pediatric Neurology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Pediatrics

            Contributors
            URI : https://frontiersin.org/people/u/385791
            URI : https://frontiersin.org/people/u/386198
            URI : https://frontiersin.org/people/u/421267
            URI : https://frontiersin.org/people/u/424024
            Journal
            Front Pediatr
            Front Pediatr
            Front. Pediatr.
            Frontiers in Pediatrics
            Frontiers Media S.A.
            2296-2360
            23 March 2018
            2018
            : 6
            29629364
            5876237
            10.3389/fped.2018.00071
            Copyright © 2018 Romero-Ayuso, Jorquera-Cabrera, Segura-Fragoso, Toledano-González, Rodríguez-Martínez and Triviño-Juárez.

            This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

            Counts
            Figures: 1, Tables: 7, Equations: 0, References: 52, Pages: 11, Words: 9289
            Categories
            Pediatrics
            Methods

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