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      Grandes alcances de los RNAs pequeños RNA de interferencia y microRNA Translated title: Great potential of small RNas: RNA interference and microRNA

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          Abstract

          El RNA de doble cadena puede inducir un silenciamiento secuencia-específico en eucarionte. Este proceso de silenciamiento se inicia cuando el RNAdc largo es procesado a RNA pequeño de 21 a 26 nucleótidos mediante la enzima RNAsa III Dicer. Estos RNA pequeños se incorporan a complejos efectores de silenciamiento, que son guiados a secuencias complementarias blanco. Existen diferentes tipos de silenciamiento, cuyas diferencias se basan principalmente en la naturaleza de la secuencia blanco y en la composición proteica de los complejos efectores. La ruta del RNA de interferencia (RNAi) se inicia cuando Dicer genera pequeños RNA de interferencia (siRNA) que se unen por complementariedad al mRNA para su degradación, utilizando el complejo RISC. De manera natural, los siRNA se originan de transposones y virus que producen RNAdc durante su replicación, así como también de otras secuencias repetidas transcritas bidireccionalmente. Algunas de las enzimas que conforman la maquinaria del RNAi como Dicer, entre otras, son codificadas por familias multigénicas en varias especies y también participan en otros mecanismos de silenciamiento mediado por RNA. Los microRNA son otros RNA pequeños que pueden inducir silenciamiento al unirse al mRNA. Éstos se generan de manera general cuando Dicer procesa estructuras de horquilla compuestas de regiones no codificantes, en genomas de plantas y animales. Los miRNA se incorporan a un complejo similar a RISC y, dependiendo de su grado de complementariedad con el mRNA blanco, pueden tener represión traduccional o bien digerir el mRNA. El silenciamiento mediado por miRNA es esencial para el desarrollo de plantas y animales. La inducción artificial del RNAi mediante siRNA o miRNA ha sido adoptada como una herramienta para inactivar la expresión génica, tanto en células en cultivo como en organismos vivos. En esta revisión se muestra el gran progreso en el entendimiento de los mecanismos que participan en la regulación génica mediada por RNA en animales y detalla algunos esfuerzos actuales para encauzar a estos mecanismos como una herramienta en la investigación y como posible terapia en enfermedades.

          Translated abstract

          Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) induces a sequence-specific silencing in eukaryotic cells. This silencing process beggins when long dsRNA is cleaved to 21 to 26 long small RNA by means of the RNAse III-type enzyme Dicer. These small dsRNA are included into silencing effector complexes, that are targeted to complementary sequences. Small RNA dependent gene silencing can be achieved by distinct mechanisms based depending mainly on the nature of target sequences and on the proteins present in the effector complex. The route of interference RNA (RNAi) begins when Dicer yields small interference RNA (siR-NA) that bind to complementary mRNA for its degradation, forming the RISC complex. siRNA are naturally formed from transposons and dsRNA viruses during its replication, as well as from other bidirectional transcribed repetitive sequences. Some of the enzymes thar are part of the RNAi machinery, including Dicer, are encoded by multigene families in many species, that also play a role in other mechanisms of RND-dependent gene silencing. MicroRNA's (miRNA) are other small RNA's that can induce gene silencing at the mRNA level. These are formed in a general manner when Dicer process hairpin structures resulting from the transcription of non-coding sequences from plant and animal genomes. miRNA's are integrated into a RISC-like complex, after which, depending on their degree of complementarity with target mRNA, can either repress translation or induce mRNA degradation. miRNA-dependent silencing is essential for the development of multicellular organisms. Artificial RNAi induction by means of siRNA or miRNA is being used as a tool to inactivate gene expression in culture cells and in living organisms. This review focuses on the progress in the understanding of the mechanisms involved in gene regulation by RNA in animals and details some current efforts to apply theses phenomena as a tool in research and in the therapeutic of human diseases.

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          Most cited references 229

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          c-Myc-regulated microRNAs modulate E2F1 expression.

          MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 21-23 nucleotide RNA molecules that regulate the stability or translational efficiency of target messenger RNAs. miRNAs have diverse functions, including the regulation of cellular differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. Although strict tissue- and developmental-stage-specific expression is critical for appropriate miRNA function, mammalian transcription factors that regulate miRNAs have not yet been identified. The proto-oncogene c-MYC encodes a transcription factor that regulates cell proliferation, growth and apoptosis. Dysregulated expression or function of c-Myc is one of the most common abnormalities in human malignancy. Here we show that c-Myc activates expression of a cluster of six miRNAs on human chromosome 13. Chromatin immunoprecipation experiments show that c-Myc binds directly to this locus. The transcription factor E2F1 is an additional target of c-Myc that promotes cell cycle progression. We find that expression of E2F1 is negatively regulated by two miRNAs in this cluster, miR-17-5p and miR-20a. These findings expand the known classes of transcripts within the c-Myc target gene network, and reveal a mechanism through which c-Myc simultaneously activates E2F1 transcription and limits its translation, allowing a tightly controlled proliferative signal.
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            Exportin-5 mediates the nuclear export of pre-microRNAs and short hairpin RNAs.

            MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are initially expressed as long transcripts that are processed in the nucleus to yield approximately 65-nucleotide (nt) RNA hairpin intermediates, termed pre-miRNAs, that are exported to the cytoplasm for additional processing to yield mature, approximately 22-nt miRNAs. Here, we demonstrate that human pre-miRNA nuclear export, and miRNA function, are dependent on Exportin-5. Exportin-5 can bind pre-miRNAs specifically in vitro, but only in the presence of the Ran-GTP cofactor. Short hairpin RNAs, artificial pre-miRNA analogs used to express small interfering RNAs, also depend on Exportin-5 for nuclear export. Together, these findings define an additional cellular cofactor required for miRNA biogenesis and function.
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              Computational identification of plant microRNAs and their targets, including a stress-induced miRNA.

              MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are approximately 21-nucleotide RNAs, some of which have been shown to play important gene-regulatory roles during plant development. We developed comparative genomic approaches to systematically identify both miRNAs and their targets that are conserved in Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa). Twenty-three miRNA candidates, representing seven newly identified gene families, were experimentally validated in Arabidopsis, bringing the total number of reported miRNA genes to 92, representing 22 families. Nineteen newly identified target candidates were confirmed by detecting mRNA fragments diagnostic of miRNA-directed cleavage in plants. Overall, plant miRNAs have a strong propensity to target genes controlling development, particularly those of transcription factors and F-box proteins. However, plant miRNAs have conserved regulatory functions extending beyond development, in that they also target superoxide dismutases, laccases, and ATP sulfurylases. The expression of miR395, the sulfurylase-targeting miRNA, increases upon sulfate starvation, showing that miRNAs can be induced by environmental stress.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                ric
                Revista de investigación clínica
                Rev. invest. clín.
                Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán (México )
                0034-8376
                August 2006
                : 58
                : 4
                : 335-349
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI-IMSS
                Article
                S0034-83762006000400009

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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                Medicine, General & Internal

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