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      Effects of dezocine for the prevention of postoperative catheter-related bladder discomfort: a prospective randomized trial

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          Purpose: To evaluate the effects of dezocine on the prevention of postoperative catheter-related bladder discomfort (CRBD).

          Patients and methods: Ninety-six adult patients undergoing abdominal surgery with urinary catheterization under general anesthesia were randomized into dezocine and control (flurbiprofen) groups. The postoperative CRBD, pain score, sedation score and adverse effects were evaluated at 0, 1, 2 and 6 hrs after tracheal extubation.

          Results: The primary outcome showed a lower incidence of CRBD at 1 hr post-extubation in the dezocine group (29.17%) than the control group (58.33%, P<0.01). The incidences at 0 and 2 hrs post-extubation and the overall incidence were also lower in the dezocine group than the control group (all P<0.05). The severity of CRBD at 0, 1, 2 and 6 hrs and the pain, sedation score and other adverse effects were comparable between the two groups ( P>0.05); however, the overall severity of CRBD was decreased in the dezocine group compared with the control group ( P<0.05).

          Conclusion: Intraoperative dezocine reduces the incidence and severity of postoperative CRBD without clinically relevant adverse effects.

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          Most cited references 31

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          Emergence delirium in adults in the post-anaesthesia care unit.

          Emergence delirium in the post-anaesthesia care unit (PACU) is poorly understood. The goal of this prospective study was to determine frequency and risk factors of emergence delirium in adults after general anaesthesia. In this prospective study, 1,359 consecutive patients were included. Contextual risk factors and occurrence of delirium according to the Riker sedation scale were documented. Groups were defined for the analysis according to the occurrence or not of agitation, then after exclusion of patients with preoperative anxiety and neuroleptics, or both, and antidepressants or benzodiazepines treatments. Sixty-four (4.7%) patients developed delirium in the PACU, which can go from thrashing to violent behaviour and removal of tubes and catheters. Preoperative anxiety was not found to be a risk factor. Preoperative medication by benzodiazepines (OR=1.910, 95% CI=1.101-3.315, P=0.021), breast surgery (OR=5.190, 95% CI=1.422-18.947, P=0.013), abdominal surgery (OR=3.206, 95% CI=1.262-8.143, P=0.014), and long duration of surgery increased the risk of delirium (OR=1.005, 95% CI=1.002-1.008, P=0.001), while a previous history of illness and long-term treatment by antidepressants decreased the risk (respectively, OR=0.544, 95% CI=0.315-0.939, P=0.029 and OR=0.245, 95% CI=0.084-0.710, P=0.010). Preoperative benzodiazepines, breast and abdominal surgery and surgery of long duration are risk factors for emergence delirium.
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            Comparison of efficacy of oxybutynin and tolterodine for prevention of catheter related bladder discomfort: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study.

            Bladder discomfort related to intraoperative catheterization of urinary bladder is a distressing symptom and more so in patients awakening from anaesthesia. These symptoms are similar to symptoms of overactive bladder. Muscarinic receptor antagonists have been reported to be effective in the treatment of overactive bladder. This study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of oxybutynin and tolterodine in preventing catheter related bladder discomfort. Two hundred and thirty-four consecutive adult patients, ASA I and II, of either sex, undergoing elective percutaneous nephrolithotomy surgery requiring urinary bladder catheterization were randomized into three equal groups of 78 each. Group C (control) received placebo, Group O (oxybutynin) received oxybutynin 5 mg and Group T (tolterodine) received tolterodine 2 mg orally 1 h before surgery. After induction of anaesthesia patients were catheterized with a 16 Fr Foley's catheter and the balloon was inflated with 10 ml distilled water. The bladder discomfort was assessed at 0, 1, 2 and 6 h after patient's arrival in the post-anaesthesia care unit. Severity of bladder discomfort was graded as mild, moderate and severe. Incidence of bladder discomfort observed in the control group was higher, i.e. 58% (45/78), compared with oxybutynin and tolterodine groups where it was 35% (28/78) and 33% (26/78), respectively (P<0.05). Significant reduction in the severity of bladder discomfort was also observed after oxybutynin and tolterodine therapy compared with control (P<0.05). Pretreatment with either oxybutynin or tolterodine reduces the incidence and severity of catheter related bladder discomfort.
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              Evaluation of intra-operative tramadol for prevention of catheter-related bladder discomfort: a prospective, randomized, double-blind study.

              Catheter-related bladder discomfort (CRBD) is defined as an urge to void or discomfort in the supra-pubic region; reported postoperatively in patients who have had urinary catheterization intra-operatively. We have evaluated tramadol, a centrally acting opioid analgesic with muscarinic receptor antagonist properties for prevention of CRBD.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                23 April 2019
                : 13
                : 1281-1288
                [1 ]Department of Anesthesiology, Zhongda Hospital, School of Medicine, Southeast University , Nanjing, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Anesthesiology, Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine , Nanjing, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Department of Anesthesiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University , Zhengzhou, Henan, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Jian-Jun YangDepartment of Anesthesiology, Zhongda Hospital, School of Medicine, Southeast University , No.87 Dingjiaqiao road, Nanjing210009, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +8 603 716 691 3114Email yjyangjj@ 123456126.com

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                © 2019 Zhang et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 4, References: 31, Pages: 8
                Original Research


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