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      Colour Tissue Doppler Echocardiographic Evaluation of Right Ventricular Function in Patients with Right Ventricular Infarction

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          Abstract

          Objective: This study was undertaken to determine right ventricular (RV) function as assessed by colour Doppler tissue imaging (DTI) in patients with RV infarction. Methods: During the study period, 35 patients were evaluated: 14 patients had an inferior myocardial infarction (MI) with RV infarction and 21 patients had an inferior MI without RV involvement. Twenty age-matched healthy subjects served as controls. The diagnosis of RV infarction was defined by ST segment elevation >0.1 mV in lead V4R. Systolic and early and late diastolic velocities were acquired from the apical four-chamber view at the lateral tricuspid annulus, the septal side of the tricuspid annulus and the RV free mid-wall using colour DTI. Results: Systolic and early diastolic velocities at the lateral tricuspid annulus were significantly reduced in patients with inferior MI with RV infarction compared with those in healthy individuals (7.8 ± 1 vs. 11 ± 2 cm/s, p < 0.002) and patients with inferior MI without RV infarction (7.8 ± 1 vs. 10 ± 1 cm/s, p < 0.002). The late diastolic lateral annular velocity did not differ between the groups. Systolic and early diastolic RV free wall velocities were also significantly decreased in patients with RV infarction compared with those in healthy individuals (7 ± 1 vs. 8.7 ± 1 cm/s, p < 0.01; 6.3 ± 2 vs. 8.7 ± 2 cm/s, p < 0.05, respectively) and patients with inferior MI without RV infarction (7 ± 1 vs. 9 ± 2 cm/s, p < 0.01; 6.3 ± 2 vs. 8.3 ± 2 cm/s, p < 0.05, respectively). Conclusion: The evaluation of tricuspid annular and RV free wall velocities using colour DTI provides a rapid and noninvasive tool for assessing RV function in patients with RV infarction.

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          Most cited references 9

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          Pulsed Doppler tissue imaging of the velocity of tricuspid annular systolic motion; a new, rapid, and non-invasive method of evaluating right ventricular systolic function.

          Rapid, accurate, and widely available non-invasive evaluation of right ventricular function still presents a problem. The purpose of the study was to determine whether the parameters derived from Doppler tissue imaging of tricuspid annular motion could be used as indexes of right ventricular function in patients with heart failure. Standard and pulsed Doppler tissue echocardiography were obtained in 44 patients with heart failure (mean left ventricular ejection fraction 24 +/- 7%) and in 30 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. The tricuspid annular systolic and diastolic velocities were acquired in apical four-chamber views at the junction of the right ventricular free wall and the anterior leaflet of the tricuspid valve using Doppler tissue imaging. Within 2 h of Doppler tissue imaging, the first-pass radionuclide ventriculogram, determining right ventricular ejection fraction and equilibrium gated radionuclide ventriculography single photon emission computed tomography, were performed in all patients. In patients with heart failure, the peak systolic annular velocity was significantly lower and the time from the onset of the electrocardiographic QRS complex to the peak of systolic annular velocity was significantly greater than the corresponding values in healthy subjects (10.3 +/- 2.6 cm. s(-1) vs 15.5 +/- 2.6 cm.s(-1), P < 0.001, and 198 +/- 34ms vs 171 +/- 29 ms, P < 0.01, respectively). There was a good correlation between systolic annular velocity and right ventricular ejection fraction (r = 0.648, P <0.001). A systolic annular velocity < 11.5 cm.s(-1)predicted right ventricular dysfunction (ejection fraction < 45%) with a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 85%. We conclude that the evaluation of peak systolic tricuspid annular velocity using Doppler tissue imaging provides a simple, rapid, and non-invasive tool for assessing right ventricular systolic function in patients with heart failure. Copyright 2001 The European Society of Cardiology.
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            Right ventricular infarction.

            Right ventricular infarction complicates up to half of inferior left ventricular infarctions. The term represents a spectrum of disease from mild, asymptomatic right ventricular dysfunction to cardiogenic shock, and it includes transient ischemic myocardial dysfunction as well as myocardial necrosis. Right ventricular infarction is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, and its presence defines a high-risk subgroup of patients with inferior left ventricular infarction. Diagnosis of this condition requires a high degree of suspicion based on clinical findings and the early recording of the electrocardiogram through right precordial leads, as well as elevated right-sided filling pressures out of proportion to left-sided filling pressures. The proper management of right ventricular infarction requires sustaining adequate right ventricular preload with volume loading and maintenance of atrioventricular synchrony, reduction of right ventricular afterload (particularly when left ventricular dysfunction is present), and inotropic support of the right ventricle. Early reperfusion with fibrinolytic therapy or direct angioplasty is also warranted. Survivors of right ventricular infarction generally have a restoration of normal right ventricular function with resolution of hemodynamic abnormalities.
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              Doppler echocardiographic measurement of low velocity motion of the left ventricular posterior wall.

              A new noninvasive method using pulsed Doppler echocardiography was developed to assess left ventricular (LV) posterior wall motion dynamics. Seventeen normal subjects and 23 patients undergoing cardiac catheterization were prospectively studied. The sample volume was placed within the LV posterior wall endocardium just apical to the mitral valve sulcus using a posteriorly angulated low parasternal view. The wall filter was set at 100 Hz to record the low velocities of the LV posterior wall motion. The Doppler signal was morphologically similar to the rate of change of the LV posterior wall endocardium excursion obtained by a digitized M-mode echocardiogram, and showed 3 major waves: a systolic wave (S), an early diastolic wave (E) and a late diastolic wave (A). The peak velocities of LV posterior wall endocardium excursion were also determined by M-mode echocardiographic technique. We found a significant linear correlation between peak E-wave velocity and M-mode peak diastolic endocardial velocity (r = 0.90, p less than 0.001) and between peak S-wave velocity and M-mode peak systolic endocardial velocity (r = 0.81, p less than 0.001). M-mode peak systolic endocardial velocity showed an important overlap between control subjects and patients with normal and patients with abnormal LV posterior wall motion on the angiogram. In contrast, peak S-wave velocity was a better discriminator, and a peak S-wave velocity less than 7.5 cm/s was associated with abnormal LV posterior wall motion with an 83% sensitivity, 100% specificity and 95% accuracy. In patients with coronary artery disease but normal systolic LV posterior wall motion and normal global systolic LV function, peak S-wave velocity was not different when compared to control subjects. Peak E-wave velocity and E/A were significantly lower than in control subjects (p less than 0.01) and peak A-wave velocity was greater (p less than 0.01). In conclusion, these data suggest that pulsed Doppler echocardiography can be used for the direct analysis of LV posterior wall instantaneous low velocities and appears to be more informative than M-mode technique for systolic measurements. Thus, detection of abnormal LV posterior wall diastolic motion by pulsed Doppler echocardiography may, upon additional confirmation, be used as a new noninvasive method to gain insight into global LV diastolic performance.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2003
                September 2003
                22 September 2003
                : 100
                : 1
                : 41-46
                Affiliations
                Department of Cardiology, Erciyes University School of Medicine, Kayseri, Turkey
                Article
                72391 Cardiology 2003;100:41–46
                10.1159/000072391
                12975545
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 5, References: 24, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Noninvasive and Diagnostic Cardiology

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