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      Cleorodes Warren, 1894 does not belong in the tribe Boarmiini (Lepidoptera: Geometridae)

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      European Journal of Entomology

      Biology Centre, AS CR

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          A molecular phylogeny of the Aphidiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

           R Belshaw,  D Quicke (1997)
          Phylogenetic relationships within the Aphidiinae, and between this and other subfamilies of Braconidae (Hymenoptera), were investigated using sequence data from three genes: elongation factor-1alpha, cytochrome b, and the second expansion segment of the 28S ribosomal subunit. Variation in both protein-coding genes was characterized by a high level of homoplasy, but analysis of the expansion segment--robust over a range of alignment methods and parameters-resolved some of the older divergences. Parsimony analysis of the combined data suggests the following tribal relationships: (Ephedrini + (Praini + (Aphidiini + Trioxini))). In addition, the cyclostome subfamilies were found to form a clade separate from the Aphidiinae, but relationships between the Aphidiinae and the noncyclostome braconids could not be resolved. The inferred phylogeny also supported a secondary loss of internal pupation within the Praini and a polyphyletic origin of endoparasitism within the Braconidae.
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            Synergistic effects of combining morphological and molecular data in resolving the phylogeny of butterflies and skippers.

            Phylogenetic relationships among major clades of butterflies and skippers have long been controversial, with no general consensus even today. Such lack of resolution is a substantial impediment to using the otherwise well studied butterflies as a model group in biology. Here we report the results of a combined analysis of DNA sequences from three genes and a morphological data matrix for 57 taxa (3258 characters, 1290 parsimony informative) representing all major lineages from the three putative butterfly super-families (Hedyloidea, Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea), plus out-groups representing other ditrysian Lepidoptera families. Recently, the utility of morphological data as a source of phylogenetic evidence has been debated. We present the first well supported phylogenetic hypothesis for the butterflies and skippers based on a total-evidence analysis of both traditional morphological characters and new molecular characters from three gene regions (COI, EF-1alpha and wingless). All four data partitions show substantial hidden support for the deeper nodes, which emerges only in a combined analysis in which the addition of morphological data plays a crucial role. With the exception of Nymphalidae, the traditionally recognized families are found to be strongly supported monophyletic clades with the following relationships: (Hesperiidae+(Papilionidae+(Pieridae+(Nymphalidae+(Lycaenidae+Riodinidae))))). Nymphalidae is recovered as a monophyletic clade but this clade does not have strong support. Lycaenidae and Riodinidae are sister groups with strong support and we suggest that the latter be given family rank. The position of Pieridae as the sister taxon to nymphalids, lycaenids and riodinids is supported by morphology and the EF-1alpha data but conflicted by the COI and wingless data. Hedylidae are more likely to be related to butterflies and skippers than geometrid moths and appear to be the sister group to Papilionoidea+Hesperioidea.
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              Phylogeny of Bicyclus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) inferred from COI, COII, and EF-1alpha gene sequences.

              Despite the fact that Bicyclus anynana has become an important model species for wing-pattern developmental biology and studies of phenotypic plasticity, little is known of the evolutionary history of the genus Bicyclus and the position of B. anynana. Understanding the evolution of development as well as the evolution of plasticity can be attempted in this species-rich genus that displays a large range of wing patterns with variable degrees of phenotypic responses to the environment. A context to guide extrapolations from population genetic studies within B. anynana to those between closely related species has been long overdue. A phylogeny of 54 of the 80 known Bicyclus species is presented based on the combined 3000-bp sequences of two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome oxidase I and II, and the nuclear gene, elongation factor 1alpha. A series of tree topologies, constructed either from the individual genes or from the combined data, using heuristic searches under a variety of weighting schemes were compared under the best maximum-likelihood models fitted for each gene separately. The most likely tree topology to have generated the three data sets was found to be a tree resulting from a combined MP analysis with equal weights. Most phylogenetic signal for the analysis comes from silent substitutions at the third position, and despite the faster rate of evolution and higher levels of homoplasy of the mitochondrial genes relative to the nuclear gene, the latter does not show substantially stronger support for basal clades. Finally, moving branches from the chosen tree topology to other positions on the tree so as to comply better with a previous morphological study did not significantly affect tree length. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                European Journal of Entomology
                Eur. J. Entomol.
                EUR J ENTOMOL
                Biology Centre, AS CR
                12105759
                18028829
                April 25 2007
                April 25 2007
                : 104
                : 2
                : 303-309
                Article
                10.14411/eje.2007.046
                © 2007
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