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      Precise radial velocities of giant stars IX. HD 59686 Ab: a massive circumstellar planet orbiting a giant star in a ~13.6 au eccentric binary system

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          Abstract

          Context: For over 12 years, we have carried out a precise radial velocity survey of a sample of 373 G and K giant stars using the Hamilton \'Echelle Spectrograph at Lick Observatory. There are, among others, a number of multiple planetary systems in our sample as well as several planetary candidates in stellar binaries. Aims: We aim at detecting and characterizing substellar+stellar companions to the giant star HD 59686 A (HR 2877, HIP 36616). Methods: We obtained high precision radial velocity (RV) measurements of the star HD 59686 A. By fitting a Keplerian model to the periodic changes in the RVs, we can assess the nature of companions in the system. In order to discriminate between RV variations due to non-radial pulsation or stellar spots we used infrared RVs taken with the CRIRES spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope. Additionally, to further characterize the system, we obtain high-resolution images with LMIRCam at the Large Binocular Telescope. Results: We report the likely discovery of a giant planet with a mass of \(m_{p}~\sin i=6.92_{-0.24}^{+0.18}~M_{Jup}\) orbiting at \(a_{p}=1.0860_{-0.0007}^{+0.0006}\) au from the giant star HD 59686 A. Besides the planetary signal, we discover an eccentric (\(e_{B}=0.729_{-0.003}^{+0.004}\)) binary companion with a mass of \(m_{B}~\sin i=0.5296_{-0.0008}^{+0.0011}~M_{Sun}\) orbiting at a semi-major axis of just \(a_{B}=13.56_{-0.14}^{+0.18}\) au. Conclusions: The existence of the planet HD 59686 Ab in a tight eccentric binary system severely challenges standard giant planet formation theories and requires substantial improvements to such theories in tight binaries. Otherwise, alternative planet formation scenarios such as second generation planets or dynamical interactions in an early phase of the system's lifetime should be seriously considered in order to better understand the origin of this enigmatic planet.

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          Most cited references 130

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          Planet Formation

           Jack Lissauer (1993)
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            Astropy: A Community Python Package for Astronomy

            We present the first public version (v0.2) of the open-source and community-developed Python package, Astropy. This package provides core astronomy-related functionality to the community, including support for domain-specific file formats such as Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) files, Virtual Observatory (VO) tables, and common ASCII table formats, unit and physical quantity conversions, physical constants specific to astronomy, celestial coordinate and time transformations, world coordinate system (WCS) support, generalized containers for representing gridded as well as tabular data, and a framework for cosmological transformations and conversions. Significant functionality is under active development, such as a model fitting framework, VO client and server tools, and aperture and point spread function (PSF) photometry tools. The core development team is actively making additions and enhancements to the current code base, and we encourage anyone interested to participate in the development of future Astropy versions.
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              Validation of the new Hipparcos reduction

              Context.A new reduction of the astrometric data as produced by the Hipparcos mission has been published, claiming accuracies for nearly all stars brighter than magnitude Hp = 8 to be better, by up to a factor 4, than in the original catalogue. Aims.The new Hipparcos astrometric catalogue is checked for the quality of the data and the consistency of the formal errors as well as the possible presence of error correlations. The differences with the earlier publication are explained. Methods. The internal errors are followed through the reduction process, and the external errors are investigated on the basis of a comparison with radio observations of a small selection of stars, and the distribution of negative parallaxes. Error correlation levels are investigated and the reduction by more than a factor 10 as obtained in the new catalogue is explained. Results.The formal errors on the parallaxes for the new catalogue are confirmed. The presence of a small amount of additional noise, though unlikely, cannot be ruled out. Conclusions. The new reduction of the Hipparcos astrometric data provides an improvement by a factor 2.2 in the total weight compared to the catalogue published in 1997, and provides much improved data for a wide range of studies on stellar luminosities and local galactic kinematics.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                2016-08-02
                Article
                10.1051/0004-6361/201628791
                1608.00963

                http://arxiv.org/licenses/nonexclusive-distrib/1.0/

                Custom metadata
                A&A 595, A55 (2016)
                14 pages, 11 figures, 2 tables. Accepted for publication in A&A
                astro-ph.EP

                Planetary astrophysics

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