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      Genetic, hormonal and metabolic aspects of PCOS: an update

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          Abstract

          Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine disorder affecting 5–10 % of women of reproductive age. It generally manifests with oligo/anovulatory cycles, hirsutism and polycystic ovaries, together with a considerable prevalence of insulin resistance. Although the aetiology of the syndrome is not completely understood yet, PCOS is considered a multifactorial disorder with various genetic, endocrine and environmental abnormalities. Moreover, PCOS patients have a higher risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and their related morbidity, if compared to the general population.

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          Revised 2003 consensus on diagnostic criteria and long-term health risks related to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)

          (2004)
          Since the 1990 NIH-sponsored conference on polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), it has become appreciated that the syndrome encompasses a broader spectrum of signs and symptoms of ovarian dysfunction than those defined by the original diagnostic criteria. The 2003 Rotterdam consensus workshop concluded that PCOS is a syndrome of ovarian dysfunction along with the cardinal features hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovary (PCO) morphology. PCOS remains a syndrome and, as such, no single diagnostic criterion (such as hyperandrogenism or PCO) is sufficient for clinical diagnosis. Its clinical manifestations may include: menstrual irregularities, signs of androgen excess, and obesity. Insulin resistance and elevated serum LH levels are also common features in PCOS. PCOS is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular events.
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            Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia (syndrome X): relation to reduced fetal growth

            Two follow-up studies were carried out to determine whether lower birthweight is related to the occurrence of syndrome X-Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia. The first study included 407 men born in Hertfordshire, England between 1920 and 1930 whose weights at birth and at 1 year of age had been recorded by health visitors. The second study included 266 men and women born in Preston, UK, between 1935 and 1943 whose size at birth had been measured in detail. The prevalence of syndrome X fell progressively in both men and women, from those who had the lowest to those who had the highest birthweights. Of 64-year-old men whose birthweights were 2.95 kg (6.5 pounds) or less, 22% had syndrome X. Their risk of developing syndrome X was more than 10 times greater than that of men whose birthweights were more than 4.31 kg (9.5 pounds). The association between syndrome X and low birthweight was independent of duration of gestation and of possible confounding variables including cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and social class currently or at birth. In addition to low birthweight, subjects with syndrome X had small head circumference and low ponderal index at birth, and low weight and below-average dental eruption at 1 year of age. It is concluded that Type 2 diabetes and hypertension have a common origin in sub-optimal development in utero, and that syndrome X should perhaps be re-named "the small-baby syndrome".
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              Clinical assessment of body hair growth in women.

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                +39 0577 233465 , vincenzo.deleo@unisi.it
                musacchiomc@gmail.com
                valentinacappelli@yahoo.it
                mariagiuliam@hotmail.it
                Giuseppe.morgante@unisi.it
                felice.petraglia@unisi.it
                Journal
                Reprod Biol Endocrinol
                Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol
                Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology : RB&E
                BioMed Central (London )
                1477-7827
                16 July 2016
                16 July 2016
                2016
                : 14
                : 38
                Affiliations
                Department Molecular Medicine and Development, University of Siena, Policlinico Le Scotte, Viale Bracci, 53100 Siena, Italy
                Article
                173
                10.1186/s12958-016-0173-x
                4947298
                27423183
                5bb4a2d0-905d-485e-8983-ebc2b1a55d62
                © The Author(s). 2016

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                History
                : 3 May 2016
                : 8 July 2016
                Categories
                Review
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                © The Author(s) 2016

                Human biology
                pcos,genetic,insulin-resistance,hyperandrogenism,infertility,metformin,oral contraceptives,myo-inositol

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