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      Concentration and Human Health Implications of Trace Metals in Fish of Economic Importance in Lagos Lagoon, Nigeria


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          The most significant sources of food-borne diseases are microbiological and chemical hazards. The health risk due to consumption of food from aquatic ecosystems contaminated with hazardous chemicals including metals has increased globally, especially in developing countries like Nigeria.


          The concentration and human health implications of trace metals in fish of economic importance in Lagos lagoon were investigated by determining the degree of contamination with heavy metals of selected fish from Lagos lagoon and assessing the possible health risks associated with fish consumption.


          Fish of economic importance including Caranx hippos, Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus, Elops lacerta, Galeoides decadactylus, Ilisha africana, Liza falcipinnis, Lutjanus goreensis, Mugil cephalus, Pseudotolithus senegalensis, Sarotherodon spp, Sphyraena spp, and Tilapia spp were bought from fishermen fishing in Lagos lagoon. The fish tissue samples were digested and analyzed in five replicates for heavy metals (lead, cadmium, iron, manganese and zinc) using a Varian AA600 atomic absorption spectrometer.


          There were considerable variations in the concentrations of heavy metals among different species. The twelve fish species collected from Lagos lagoon were found to contain various concentrations of heavy metals and the levels of accumulation of these heavy metals varied across different species. Lead, cadmium, and manganese were present in all the studied fish species at higher concentrations than the maximum allowable concentrations in fish recommended by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) and World Health Organization (WHO). The target hazard quotient (THQ) estimated for individual heavy metals through consumption of different fish species was less than 1 for all individual heavy metal in all the fish species.


          Controls on the dumping of wastes in the lagoon are needed, along with regular monitoring. Currently, no potential non-carcinogenic health risks from ingestion of a single heavy metal through consumption of these fish species was found.

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          Most cited references29

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          Heavy metals: Implications associated to fish consumption.

          Metals are being utilized of ways in industries and agriculture; particularly heavy metals such as mercury, cadmium, lead and arsenic constitute a significant potential threat to human health because they are associated to many adverse effects on health. The consumption of fish is recommended because it is a good source of omega-3 fatty acids, which have been associated with health benefits due to its cardio-protective effects. However, the content of heavy metals discovered in some fish makes it difficult to establish clearly the role of fish consumption on a healthy diet. Therefore the present mini-review accounts for the recent evidence of the effect of these toxic metals on the human health and their possible implications in fish consumption. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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            The relationships between heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn) levels and the size of six Mediterranean fish species

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              Cadmium & its adverse effects on human health.

              A. Bernard (2008)
              Cadmium (Cd), a by-product of zinc production, is one of the most toxic elements to which man can be exposed at work or in the environment. Once absorbed, Cd is efficiently retained in the human body, in which it accumulates throughout life. Cd is primarily toxic to the kidney, especially to the proximal tubular cells, the main site of accumulation. Cd can also cause bone demineralization, either through direct bone damage or indirectly as a result of renal dysfunction. In the industry, excessive exposures to airborne Cd may impair lung function and increase the risk of lung cancer. All these effects have been described in populations with relatively high exposures to Cd in the industrial or in heavily polluted environments. Recent studies, however, suggest that the chronic low environmental exposure to Cd now prevailing in industrialized countries can adversely affect the kidneys and bones of the general population. These studies show consistent associations between various renal and bone biomarkers and the urinary excretion of Cd used to assess Cd body burden. The public health impact of these findings are still unknown. Further research is needed to ascertain that these associations are truly causal and not secondary to parallel changes in Cd metabolism and in the bone or kidney function occurring because of ageing or diseases unrelated to Cd exposure.

                Author and article information

                J Health Pollut
                J Health Pollut
                J Health Pollut
                Journal of Health & Pollution
                Black Smith Institute
                March 2017
                29 March 2017
                : 7
                : 13
                : 66-72
                [1 ] Department of Fisheries Resources, Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research, Lagos, Nigeria.
                [2 ] Department of Food Science and Technology, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria
                Author notes
                Corresponding Author: Ngozi M. Oguguah, Tel. +2348032642262, ngozimoguguah@ 123456yahoo.com

                Competing Interests. The authors declare no competing financial interests

                © 2017 Black Smith Institute

                This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with Creative Commons Attribution Licence ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0).

                Page count
                Pages: 7

                heavy metals,target hazard quotient,hazard index,lagos lagoon,nigeria


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